“The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.” Martin Luther King, Jr.
During a recent interview in the September 2012 issue of Black Enterprise magazine, President Obama said:
History has proven that it makes no difference whose in power; those who have not learned to do for themselves, and depend solely on others, obtains no more rights or privileges in the end than they had in the beginning. Dr. Carter G. Woodson http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carter_G._Woodson
The Only known case of a husband and wife being jointly framed and wrongly convicted
My fight began on June 17, 1992, the day they arrested Virginia and continue till this day. After 21 years, I am not discouraged…even stars fall sometimes, but the difference is I can get right back up there and start shining again… and I know I will…
Virginia and George High spent over 7 years in federal prison (94-2001), after being Framed, Wrongly Convicted, The victims of Prosecutorial misconduct and of a judicial lynching, because they would not "cut-a-deal". After which the U.S.A. stole 1.2 + million from the Highs, gave it to a white snitch (see below) and caused the High Family to lose 4 businesses and 4 + million in assets, ( in 1992 $$$ ) . George High is now 74 years old, nearly destitute and living in a Low-Income Senior Citizen Building, since 2005, and pay $203.00 monthly, including utilities, and his total monthly income is $648.00 Social Security, $82.00 SSI and $28.00 in Food Stamps ...but, George High affirm that: He will continue this fight until Justice prevail, or hell freeze over...which ever comes first.....
I have 6 grandchildren and 5 were in collage until the oldest had to drop out to get a job and I have never been financially able to give any one of them so much as $200.00 in the furtherance of their education. Furthermore, I have not had a automobile since 2008, and have relied solely on public transportation. so when I say: “nearly destitute”, I mean “ NEARLY DESTITUTE”.
The 4 Businesses We Owned/Operated & Our 4 + Million in Assets
George and Virginia High are husband and wife, having been married since 1968. When this racist investigation began in 1990, the Highs had assets in excess of 4 million dollars, and had an ownership interest in Georgia Home Improvement Company Inc., High-Five Ltd., Shareholders in Bal, Inc. and owner/operators of Highs Realty Inc. in which George Sr. was Broker and Virginia, Eric and George W. High, Jr. along with 30 + other people were all licensed real estate agents. The second superseding indictment against the Highs alleged that they used these businesses as "fronts" to structure currency transactions and laundry money that was illegally obtained through the trafficking of narcotics. George and Virginia High pled not guilty to the indictment and have maintained their innocence throughout the trial and subsequent proceedings. Disfranchised Introduction: hthttp://georgehigh.com/Disfranchised/My%20Memoirs%20Introduction.pdf
Georgia Home Improvement Company, Inc. http://corp.sos.state.ga.us/corp/soskb/Corp.asp?609545 ...The total cost of the restoration exceeded $850,000 and Georgia Home Improvement netted almost $500,000 during 80 and 81 + we made a “bundle” from real estate during that same period...After we finished the Herndon Mansion, we had a big nest egg and we started to sell houses and do owner financing which proved to be very lucrative because most of the houses in our area were non qualifying and non escalating FHA and/or VA ... excepts from Disfranchised pg. 23-33 http://georgehigh.com/Disfranchised/Ga.%20Hm.%20His..pdf
Highs Realty Inc. & The High-Family Real Estate...1971 – 1994 http://corp.sos.state.ga.us/corp/soskb/Corp.asp?794493 This list is of the properties that we owned, held 1st & 2nd mortgages on, sold Owner-financing, Real estate Notes we held and etc. On this list is also about 60 Quadplex, 40 owned by High-Five, Ltd. and 20 owned by George High. Now Bill Salinski and the "good-old-boys and gals" stole all our Real Estate and other Business records during the unjust search and seizure at our home and office... ( search warrant. http://georgehigh.com/Virginia/Sc.Wr..pdf )... so that the Highs could not mount a effective defense to prove their innocence of the “trumped-up-charges... but the records were still at the Dekalb and Fulton County Courthouses and here they are.... All 18 pages... http://georgehigh.com/Virginia/George%20%26%20Virginia%20Real%20Estate.pdf
HIGH FIVE, Ltd. http://corp.sos.state.ga.us/corp/soskb/Corp.asp?804829 The goal of the Lakewood Village Homeless Empowerment Project is to provide permanent housing, job training/referrals. education support and part time employment for Atlanta's homeless community; to serve as a social service network and referral system to provide treatment for drug/alcohol dependent and mentally ill homeless persons. http://georgehigh.com/gh/Dr.%20Marsh%20Proposal.pdf
Bal, Inc. - Was a corporation owned/operated by Eric, George Jr., Gerald, Greg and Donald High, Jr., (all 1st cousins). They made loans, secured by automobiles and real estate, in the amounts of $10,000 or less. Those records were also stolen by William Salinski and his cronies from the office and the apartment that Eric and Jenique High rented on the lower lever of our home. http://corp.sos.state.ga.us/corp/soskb/Corp.asp?788129
1 MILLON DOLLARS + is what that Racist DOJ & IRS "stole from the High's" and gave that white boy for testi-lying against the High's and other blacks and causing "Us all" to go to prison + he got many, many more $$$. http://www.frommilo.com/2008/07/02/heres-how-1-millon-dollars-look-like/
Kyle Henry...1 of 18 paid snitcher's who Testi-lied at trial and all were drug dealers...and the jury is still out on him... See page titled Disfranchised - - - Kyle Henry, white boy, snitch, now millionair extraordinaire. The government agreed not to prosecute him on money laundering (count 13) or drug conspiracy (count 1). On June 8,1992, Kyle Henry and his lawyer made a contract with the IRS (William Salanski & Shelia Whipple), to receive 25 % of the first million collected by them and 10% of the remainder up to one million Dollars. Kyle Henry had already received $50,000 plus $18,000 reimbursement for expenses. Now Kyle Henry also had a second deal with the U.S. Attorneys office (Joe D. Whitley), that says that he gets, 25% of everything that the government gets, not just cars. He gets 25% of Sims Jinks house, 25% of David Wallace's house, 25% of the million + "stole" from the Highs, 25% of all the so called drug money seized and there was no cap on the amount that white boy could get, and he also went in the witness protection program after testi-lying... http://georgehigh.com/Disfranchised/K.%20H..pdf
One of the very oldest principles of our legal heritage is that the king is subject to the law… See Romans 13. King John was taught this principle at Runnymede in A.D. 1215, when his barons forced him to submit to Magna Carta, the great charter that imposed limits on the exercise of sovereign power. See William Sharp McKechnie, Magna Carta, 36-42 (1914). One of the first modern expositions of this hallowed principle is found in Lex, Rex, whose title indicated the fundamental shift in our legal heritage toward the primacy of the law and the subordinate position of the king.... Justice Brandeis expounded as follows on the principle: Decency, security and liberty alike demand that government officials shall be subjected to the same rules of conduct that are commands to the citizen. In a government of laws, existence of the government will be imperilled if it fails to observe the law scrupulously. Our Government is the potent, omnipresent teacher. For good or for ill, it teaches the whole people by its example. Crime is contagious. If the Government becomes a lawbreaker, it breeds contempt for law; it invites every man to become a law unto himself; it invites anarchy. To declare that in the administration of the criminal law the end justifies the means, to declare that the Government may commit crimes in order to secure the conviction of a private criminal would bring terrible retribution... http://www.november.org/razorwire/rzold/09/10thCkt.html
8/31/09 Criminal Complaint (scroll up) http://georgehigh.com/email%20and%20letters/Crim.%20Com.%208-31-09.pdf
sent to these folks http://georgehigh.com/email%20and%20letters/Criminal%20Complaint%208-31-09.pdf
y'all's Statue of Liberty Our Statue of Liberty
Website Started: 10/25/2005 - Last updated - March 3, 2014
Speaking truth to power is perhaps the oldest and, certainly, one of the most difficult of ethical challenges because to do so entails personal danger. From the day humans descended from our ape-like ancestors until only very recently, tribal leaders, clan elders, kings, and just plain bosses were men who ruled by force. To question their decisions was to risk death. The truth that makes men free is for the most part the truth which men prefer not to hear. --Herbert Agar, A Time for Greatness (1942) http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/truth-to-power.html
I'm Gonna Stand My Ground And I Won't Back Down http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nmERuCXTyw&feature=related
"Speaking Truth to Power" and what if they had Back Down?
is chiseled in Stone on the front of the U.S. Supreme Court building. All men are created equal is one of the most important doctrines that our founders espoused. It means that no one is above the law. Kings are not above the law, groups are not above the law, no individual is above the law but there is “equal justice under law.” http://agentgenius.com/g-rants-insanity-more/equal-justice-under-law/
"The oath of allegiance is not an oath of secrecy," he told the Post. "That is an oath to the Constitution. That is the oath that I kept that [NSA Director] Keith Alexander and [Director of National Intelligence] James Clapper did not.
Asked about the Snowden interview, White House spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden told the Associated Press: "Mr. Snowden faces felony charges here in the United States and should be returned to the U.S. as soon as possible, where he will be afforded due process and all the protections of our criminal justice system." http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/12/24/nsa-leaker-edward-snowden-says-his-mission-already-accomplished/
George W. Bush (KKK), during his six years as governor of Texas presided over 152 executions, more than any other governor in the recent history of the United States. According to statistics, George Bush has executed 9 INNOCENT PEOPLE..! http://www.texecutions.com/.
Albert Pike (December 29, 1809–April 2, 1891) The Ku Klux Klan, the Southern Confederacy, and the pre-Civil War secession movement were a single, continuous project, with Pike’s "Scottish Rite" at its center. Though the Confederacy was defeated, this project lives on today, and now dominates U.S. political life. Look at Baker & Botts, the Houston family firm and power base of Secretary of State James A. Baker III. This law firm was formed after the Civil War by die-hard Confederate and Masonic officials in Albert Pike’s Scottish Rite and military clique. With their British imperial racial notions, Baker & Botts and Scottish Rite freemasonry have dominated the Texas power structure ever since. Secretary Baker’s grandfather, Captain James A. Baker, brought English race scientist Julian Huxley in to supervise the "race purification" study program for Texas, at Rice University. Secretary Baker’s family wealth and power came from their representing Harriman, the international oil companies and George Bush’s Zapata Petroleum, all sponsors of the population control, or ban-dark-babies movement. This movement is synonymous with the Scottish Rite. http://itwasjohnson.impiousdigest.com/kkkmas.htm
Did Texas execute an innocent man? FRONTLINE asked the question a year ago when we first aired Death by Fire, which rebroadcasts tonight (check local listings). The film examines whether Cameron Todd Willingham deliberately set a 1991 house fire that killed his three daughters. Willingham was executed for the crime in 2004.
But the question has reverberated over the past year, as Texas Gov. Rick Perry seeks the GOP nomination for president. Perry has defended the execution, describing Willingham as a “monster,” and saying in a GOP debate that he’s never struggled with the thought that an innocent person has been executed during his time in office.
At the heart of the debate over Willingham’s guilt is fire science: “A fire does not lie,” wrote the Texas investigators who originally determined the blaze was a classic case of arson. But more than a decade later, fire scientist Gerald Hurst reviewed the evidence and found that the fire could not have been purposefully set. “One might well wonder how anyone could make so many critical errors in interpreting the evidence,” he wrote questioning the original investigation. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/criminal-justice/death-by-fire/did-texas-execute-an-innocent-man-answers-remain-elusive/
When Perry defended capital punishment, he drew strong applause from the scores of people in the audience at the Republican debate Wednesday night at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
As of today, 234 people have been executed in the 10-plus years that Perry has served as governor of Texas. That's the highest number of any American governor.
The audience first applauded when NBC News anchor Brian Williams cited the number of executions in Texas. Perry says he believes that such a response reflects how much Americans support capital punishment for particularly heinous crimes. http://news.yahoo.com/applause-perry-defends-texas-death-penalty-020621677.html
Texas prisons end special last meals in executions Sep 23, 2011 HOUSTON (AP) — It's a tradition with roots that can be traced far back in history: Before being put to death, a condemned prisoner can choose his last meal. Not so anymore in Texas. Officials who oversee the country's busiest death chamber stopped the practice on Thursday after a prominent state senator complained about a hefty request from a man executed for his role in a notorious dragging death. Now, inmates get to eat only what the kitchen serves. http://www.taiwannews.com.tw/etn/news_content.php?id=1716683
Wrongfully convicted band together May 1, 2012 DALLAS, May 1 (UPI) -- Some Texas inmates whose wrongful convictions were overturned say they are reaching out to others like themselves through the Texas Exoneree Project. The project helps people like James Curtis Williams and Raymond Jackson who spent more than a quarter of a century in prison for a rape they didn't commit, CBS reported. Williams and Jackson were formally exonerated Monday after DNA testing implicated two other men.
Read more: http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2012/05/01/Wrongfully-convicted-band-together/UPI-40971335883337/#ixzz20Ki5MYYF
AUSTIN, Texas, Oct. 27, 2011 (UPI) -- A Texas court denied a former prosecutor's motion to quash a subpoena from the attorneys for a prison inmate who was exonerated in the murder of his wife. Lawyers for Michael Morton want to depose former Williamson County prosecutor Ken Anderson about allegations that evidence in Morton's case had been hidden from the defense to raise the odds of a conviction.
Morton was convicted in 1987 of murdering his wife the year before and spent nearly 25 years in prison before being cleared. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals Wednesday declined to hear a motion from Anderson to block the deposition. The Austin American-Statesman said the refusal was made without comment other than a statement from one judge who recused himself because his wife had been part of Morton's defense team in 1987.
Read more: http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2011/10/27/Subpoena-for-Texas-ex-prosecutor-stands/UPI-21791319733140/#ixzz20KkQiqjg
5/1/12 Two Texas men who were convicted of raping and shooting a woman almost 30 years ago were exonerated yesterday after DNA tests in Dallas County implicated others in the crime.
As Judge Susan Hawk apologised to James Curtis Williams and Raymond Jackson and declared them formally innocent of aggravated sexual assault, 10 other exonerated men watched in the audience.
Williams and Jackson were convicted of attacking a woman outside a Dallas bar in November 1983 and sentenced to life in prison. The woman was forced into a vehicle at gunpoint, sexually assaulted, shot and left for dead in a field.
Dallas County has now exonerated 32 people since 2001, most of them during Watkins' tenure. Most of the cases, including Monday's, involved faulty eyewitness identifications.
Watkins questioned the criminal justice system's fairness and whether black people were being mistreated. ‘I think we see the similarities in these men and the two that are being exonerated today that has not been addressed,’ he said.
Lawrence Russell Brewer executed September 21, 2011 6:21 PM HUNTSVILLE - The State of Texas has executed Lawrence Russell Brewer for the dragging death of James Byrd Junior. Brewer was executed after 6 p.m. at the Walls Unit in Huntsville.KFDM reporter Lindsey Kovacevich was a witness to the execution. Watch for her report at 10. Brewer granted Lindsey the only interview he's given since the dragging death on Huff Creek Road outside Jasper in 1998. http://www.kfdm.com/articles/lawrence-44888-russell-brewer.html
Execution set for killer in Jasper dragging death Lawrence Russell Brewer's execution was set by District Judge Jerome Owens in Jasper for Wednesday, September 21, 2011 after 6:00 p.m. http://www.kfdm.com/video/v/969738847001/kfdm-localnews
"Remember the Alamo,'' and do Y'all Remember James Byrd Jr.?
(From Left) James Byrd Jr. , Shawn Berry, Lawrence Brewer and John King. -
Dragging Death in Jasper Texas: On June 7, 1998, Byrd, 49, accepted a ride from three men named Shawn Allen Berry, Lawrence Russell Brewer, and John William King . He had already known one of them. Instead of taking him home, the three men beat Byrd behind a convenience store, chained him by the ankles to their pickup truck, stripped the man naked, and dragged him for three miles. Although Lawrence Russell Brewer said that Byrd's throat had been slashed before he was dragged, forensic evidence suggests that Byrd had been attempting to keep his head up, and an autopsy suggested that Byrd was alive for much of the dragging and died after his right arm and head were severed when his body hit a culvert. His body had caught a sewage drain on the side of the road resulting in Byrd's decapitation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Byrd_Jr.
Sept. 6, 2000...Juries in Jasper and Bryan sentenced Bill King, 25, and Russell Brewer Jr., 32, to death. On Thursday, a third jury in Jasper sentenced Berry to life in prison... http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/jasper/byrd/387258.html
Forty men were executed in the Great Gainesville Hanging in Texas, 1862. As rumors continued of a slave insurrection, it led to the lynching of an estimated thirty to fifty slaves. The entire affair culminated in the greatest mass lynching in the history of the state, in at what is now called "The Great Hanging at Gainesville." http://www.legendsofamerica.com/ah-lynching2.html
A century later, Texas race massacre forgotten by all but a few Feb. 26, 2011 SLOCUM -- In the waning days of July 1910, racial hatred ignited around this East Texas village. Bands of white residents took up rifles and shotguns and hunted down and slaughtered African-Americans. When it was over, estimates of the black dead ranged from eight to 20 or more. All of the known victims were unarmed and most were shot in the back, authorities said at the time.
"Men were going about killing Negroes as fast as they could find them, and, so far as I was able to ascertain, without any real cause," Anderson County Sheriff W.H. Black, a white from nearby Palestine, was quoted as saying in the Aug. 1, 1910, edition of The New York Times. "These Negroes have done no wrong that I can discover. I don't know how many there were in the mob, but there may have been 200 or 300. They hunted the Negroes down like sheep."
Seven white men were indicted on murder charges and had their cases transferred to Houston on a change of venue. But none ever came to trial. http://www.star-telegram.com/2011/02/26/2880066/a-century-later-texas-race-massacre.html
The Execution Photos by J.J. Maloney 7/20/09 Texas reporter, Mike Graczyk has seen 315 of the state's 439 executions - and no records were kept for another 80 http://my.att.net/s/editorial.dll?eeid=6699737&eetype=article&render=y&ck=
June 15, 2010 Texas judge orders DNA test decade after execution… "This is a DNA test that could prove someone was wrongly executed," said Barry Scheck, the co-director of the Innocence Project, a New York-based legal center that helped ensure the preservation of the strand of hair. Jones, a career criminal and paroled murderer, always insisted he was innocent. He died in 2000, the last of 40 inmates executed in Texas that year and the last of 152 inmates put to death during former President George W. Bush's time as governor. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100615/ap_on_re_us/us_texas_execution_dna
Innocence Project: Overhaul death penalty laws – 11/12/10 The piece of hair was the only physical evidence prosecutors used to tie Jones to a fatal shooting during the robbery of an East Texas liquor store in November 1989. Because the DNA test showed the hair did not come from Jones, the evidence used to convict him was insufficient under Texas law, Scheck said. "If that DNA test had been performed, there would have been plenty of doubt about guilt, and this conviction would have been reversed and this execution wouldn't have taken place," he said. Innocence Project co-founder Barry Scheck said the execution of convicted murderer Claude Jones 10 years ago took place only because then-Gov. George W. Bush wasn't told by his legal team that Jones' lawyer was seeking DNA testing on a piece of hair used to convict him."I have great hopes that when President Bush reviews this case he will acknowledge what I think is obvious here, and that is that he was blindsided, he was misled, and he would have granted that DNA test to Claude Jones and everything would have been different for Claude Jones." Bush's office has declined to comment on the case. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101112/ap_on_re_us/us_texas_execution_dna
Lawyer for Texas exonerees faces misconduct suit 1/18/11 ARLINGTON, Texas – The State Bar of Texas has filed a lawsuit against an attorney who collected millions of dollars from wrongly convicted ex-inmates, saying he committed professional misconduct by charging fees that were illegal and unconscionable. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110118/ap_on_re_us/us_dna_exonerations_lawyer_fees
The lynching of Lige Daniels. Onlookers, including young boys. August 3, 1920, Center, Texas. Captain W. A. Bridges of the Seventh Cavalry was wired orders from Austin to protect Lige Daniels from the threat of mob violence. His excuse for failing to follow orders was the inability to "find any members of his Company in time for mobilization." One thousand men stormed the Center, Texas, jail, battered down the steel doors, wrecked the cell, chose a courthouseyard oak, and lynched Lige Daniels http://withoutsanctuary.org/pics_49.html
For 100 years, Bud Porter's kickoff return has stood as a rec
Ore. governor bans executions; condemned inmate gets reprieve 11/23/11
SALEM, Ore. – What was supposed to be Oregon’s first execution in 14 years won’t be taking place -- at least not while Gov. John Kitzhaber is in office.
Calling the death penalty “morally wrong,” the Democratic governor on Tuesday announced a state moratoriumon on executions and granted a reprieve to death-row inmate Gary Haugen.
The twice-convicted murderer was scheduled to be put to death by lethal injection on Dec. 6. http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2011/11/22/8960760-ore-governor-bans-executions-condemned-inmate-gets-reprieve
139 Innocence Freed From Death Row. Last case added October 28, 2010http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/innocence-list-those-freed-death-row
.In 2000, Ryan, as governor, declared a moratorium on executions in Illinois after 13 death row inmates were found to have been wrongly convicted. Then, days before he left office in 2003, he emptied out death row, commuting the sentences of all 167 inmates to life in prison. He declared that the state's criminal justice system was "haunted by the demon of error." http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14703115/from/ET/
Illinois' death row officially shuts down: - | AP – Sat, Jul 2, 2011 CHICAGO (AP) — After spending years at the center of heated national debate over capital punishment, Illinois' death row officially died Friday when a state law abolishing the death penalty quietly took effect.
The state garnered international attention when then-Republican Gov. George Ryan declared a moratorium in 2000 after several inmates' death sentences were overturned and he cleared death row three years later. One man who came within 48 hours of being executed was among those later declared innocent. http://news.yahoo.com/illinois-death-row-officially-shuts-down-130702311.html
.Report: Thousands wrongly convicted each year: 2/11/2005http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-02-11-wrongly-convicted_x.htm
Ruby Ridge and the killing of Randy Weaver's dog, then his son, then his wife.
Government Gone Wrong In August of 1992 Americans tensely watched as events began to unfold on a remote ridge in Northern Idaho, involving a white separatist family and the FBI. Eleven days after it had begun, a 14-year-old boy, a 42-year-old mother, a federal marshal, and one yellow Labrador retriever had all been shot dead. The incident ultimately led to one of the most intensive and controversial investigations in recent history. The FBI faced widespread resentment and Attorney General Janet Reno established a Justice Department task force to investigate what had happened. National debates on the case were said to have fueled anti-government sentiments, which eventually played a role in the Waco, Oklahoma City, and the Freemen conflict. Timothy McVeigh's bombing of the government building in Oklahoma City is said to be at least partially motivated by revenge for what happened at Ruby Ridge. http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/randy_weaver/1.html
Up On Ruby Ridge http://www.mtamicro.com/rubyridge.html
1992 Four hundred armed federal agents conducted a siege of the Weavers' mountain home, first killing Randy Weaver's dog, then his son, then his wife. http://www.boogieonline.com/revolution/firearms/enforce/rubyridge/
The Justice Department's Other Criminal Cover-Up - by James Bovard, January 1998 Michael Kahoe was sentenced last fall for felony charges of obstruction of justice. He will serve 18 months in prison and pay a $4,000 fine. Kahoe could have received up to 10 years in prison and a $250,000 fine. But the real lesson of the Kahoe sentence is this: Cover up a killing, get a pension. Kahoe was permitted to stay on the FBI payroll (at $112,000 a year) for several months after he pled guilty so that he could qualify for a pension of $67,000 per year. If he had been fired at the time that he pled guilty to obstruction of justice, his pension would have been much less. What sort of Justice Department keeps people on its payroll after they plead guilty to obstruction of justice? http://www.fff.org/freedom/0198d.asp
20 years after Ruby Ridge, there's forgiveness 8/20/12
Associated Press/Nicholas K. Geranios - In this photo taken Aug. 7, 2012, Sara Weaver stands outside her horse ranch near Kalispell, Mont. Weaver has finally forgiven the federal agents who 20 years ago shot …
KALISPELL, Mont. (AP) — When Sara Weaver saw her father Randy struck in the shoulder by a government sniper's bullet in the Idaho wilderness in August 1992, she began to sprint back to the family's cabin on a mountaintop called Ruby Ridge.
As the 16-year-old closed in, her mother, Vicki, opened the cabin door and stood behind it, holding Sara Weaver's 10-month-old sister in her arms. Just then, a sniper's bullet struck her mother in the head, killing her. http://news.yahoo.com/20-years-ruby-ridge-theres-forgiveness-200635491.html
Since the 1870 Act that established the Department of Justice as an executive department of the government of the United States, the Attorney General has guided the world's largest law office and the central agency for enforcement of federal laws. http://www.justice.gov/ag/about-oag.html
Federal Bureau of Investigation - The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation (BOI). Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935.
The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation
The FBI Going Rogue …2/13/2011…The history of the FBI is the history of how America -- once a nation that abided by the rule of law and held the government accountable for its actions -- has steadily devolved into a police state where laws are unidirectional, intended as a tool for government to control the people and rarely the other way around.
Dr. Martin Luther King assassination, Lorraine Hotel, Memphis,Tenn., April 4, 1968
House passes bill to reopen civil rights murders 6/20/07 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19333322/from/ET/
Senate OKs bill to probe civil rights murders: 9/24/08
Despite Fanfare, FBI Initiative Fails to Prosecute Any Civil Rights Era Murders Tuesday, September 09, 2008 - - WASHINGTON — Flanked by officials from the NAACP and the Southern Poverty Law Center, FBI Director Robert Mueller last year announced with considerable fanfare a new partnership between his agency and civil rights organizations.
The goal: To bring justice in long-ignored murders from the civil rights era.
The outcome: Not one case has been prosecuted under the FBI's Cold Case Initiative, which actually began two years ago with no fanfare at all. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,419982,00.html
The chronology below briefly describes their lives. More information is available at the Civil Rights Memorial Center. http://www.splcenter.org/civil-rights-memorial/civil-rights-martyrs
May 7, 1955 · Belzoni, Mississippi
Rev. George Lee, one of the first black people registered to vote in Humphreys County, used his pulpit and his printing press to urge others to vote. White officials offered Lee protection on the condition he end his voter registration efforts, but Lee refused and was murdered.
August 13, 1955 · Brookhaven, Mississippi
Lamar Smith was shot dead on the courthouse lawn by a white man in broad daylight while dozens of people watched. The killer was never indicted because no one would admit they saw a white man shoot a black man. Smith had organized blacks to vote in a recent election.
August 28, 1955 · Money, Mississippi
Emmett Louis Till, a 14-year-old boy on vacation from Chicago, reportedly flirted with a white woman in a store. Three nights later, two men took Till from his bed, beat him, shot him and dumped his body in the Tallahatchie River. An all-white jury found the men innocent of murder.
October 22, 1955 · Mayflower, Texas
John Earl Reese, 16, was dancing in a café when white men fired shots into the windows. Reese was killed and two others were wounded. The shootings were part of an attempt by whites to terrorize blacks into giving up plans for a new school. (photograph unavailable)
January 23, 1957 · Montgomery, Alabama
Willie Edwards Jr., a truck driver, was on his way to work when he was stopped by four Klansmen. The men mistook Edwards for another man who they believed was dating a white woman. They forced Edwards at gunpoint to jump off a bridge into the Alabama River. Edwards’ body was found three months later.
April 25, 1959 · Poplarville, Mississippi
Mack Charles Parker, 23, was accused of raping a white woman. Three days before his case was set for trial, a masked mob took him from his jail cell, beat him, shot him and threw him in the Pearl River.
September 25, 1961 · Liberty, Mississippi
Herbert Lee, who worked with civil rights leader Bob Moses to help register black voters, was killed by a state legislator who claimed self-defense and was never arrested. Louis Allen, a black man who witnessed the murder, was later also killed.
April 9, 1962 · Taylorsville, Mississippi
Cpl. Roman Ducksworth Jr., a military police officer stationed in Maryland, was on leave to visit his sick wife when he was ordered off a bus by a police officer and shot dead. The police officer may have mistaken Ducksworth for a “freedom rider” who was testing bus desegregation laws.
September 30, 1962 · Oxford, Mississippi
Paul Guihard, a reporter for a French news service, was killed by gunfire from a white mob during protests over the admission of James Meredith to the University of Mississippi.
April 23, 1963 · Attalla, Alabama
William Lewis Moore, a postman from Baltimore, was shot and killed during a one-man march against segregation. Moore had planned to deliver a letter to the governor of Mississippi urging an end to intolerance.
Medgar Evers, who directed NAACP operations in Mississippi, was leading a campaign for integration in Jackson when he was shot and killed by a sniper at his home.
September 15, 1963 · Birmingham, Alabama
Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley were getting ready for church services when a bomb exploded at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, killing all four of the school-age girls. The church had been a center for civil rights meetings and marches.
September 15, 1963 · Birmingham, Alabama
Virgil Lamar Ware, 13, was riding on the handlebars of his brother’s bicycle when he was fatally shot by white teenagers. The white youths had come from a segregationist rally held in the aftermath of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing.
January 31, 1964 · Liberty, Mississippi
Louis Allen, who witnessed the murder of civil rights worker Herbert Lee, endured years of threats, jailings and harassment. He was making final arrangements to move north on the day he was killed.
March 23, 1964 · Jacksonville, Florida
Johnnie Mae Chappell was murdered as she walked along a roadside. Her killers were white men looking for a black person to shoot following a day of racial unrest. (photograph unavailable)
April 7, 1964 · Cleveland, Ohio
Rev. Bruce Klunder was among civil rights activists who protested the building of a segregated school by placing their bodies in the way of construction equipment. Klunder was crushed to death when a bulldozer backed over him.
May 2, 1964 · Meadville, Mississippi
Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore were killed by Klansmen who believed the two were part of a plot to arm blacks in the area. (There was no such plot.) Their bodies were found during a massive search for the missing civil rights workers Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner.
June 21, 1964 · Philadelphia, Mississippi
James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Henry Schwerner, young civil rights workers, were arrested by a deputy sheriff and then released into the hands of Klansmen who had plotted their murders. They were shot, and their bodies were buried in an earthen dam.
July 11, 1964 · Colbert, Georgia
Lt. Col. Lemuel Penn, a Washington, D.C., educator, was driving home from U.S. Army Reserves training when he was shot and killed by Klansmen in a passing car.
February 26, 1965 · Marion, Alabama
Jimmie Lee Jackson was beaten and shot by state troopers as he tried to protect his grandfather and mother from a trooper attack on civil rights marchers. His death led to the Selma-Montgomery march and the eventual passage of the Voting Rights Act.
March 11, 1965 · Selma, Alabama
Rev. James Reeb, a Unitarian minister from Boston, was among many white clergymen who joined the Selma marchers after the attack by state troopers at the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Reeb was beaten to death by white men while he walked down a Selma street.
March 25, 1965 · Selma Highway, Alabama
Viola Gregg Liuzzo, a housewife and mother from Detroit, drove alone to Alabama to help with the Selma march after seeing televised reports of the attack at the Edmund Pettus Bridge. She was driving marchers back to Selma from Montgomery when she was shot and killed by a Klansmen in a passing car.
June 2, 1965 · Bogalusa, Louisiana
Oneal Moore was one of two black deputies hired by white officials in an attempt to appease civil rights demands. Moore and his partner, Creed Rogers, were on patrol when they were blasted with gunfire from a passing car. Moore was killed and Rogers was wounded.
July 18, 1965 · Anniston, Alabama
Willie Brewster was on his way home from work when he was shot and killed by white men. The men belonged to the National States Rights Party, a violent neo-Nazi group whose members had been involved in church bombings and murders of blacks.
August 20, 1965 · Hayneville, Alabama
Jonathan Myrick Daniels, an Episcopal Seminary student in Boston, had come to Alabama to help with black voter registration in Lowndes County. He was arrested at a demonstration, jailed in Hayneville and then suddenly released. Moments after his release, he was shot to death by a deputy sheriff.
January 3, 1966 · Tuskegee, Alabama
Samuel Leamon Younge Jr., a student civil rights activist, was fatally shot by a white gas station owner following an argument over segregated restrooms.
January 10, 1966 · Hattiesburg, Mississippi
Vernon Ferdinand Dahmer, a wealthy businessman, offered to pay poll taxes for those who couldn’t afford the fee required to vote. The night after a radio station broadcasted Dahmer’s offer, his home was firebombed. Dahmer died later from severe burns.
June 10, 1966 · Natchez, Mississippi
Ben Chester White, who had worked most of his life as a caretaker on a plantation, had no involvement in civil rights work. He was murdered by Klansmen who thought they could divert attention from a civil rights march by killing a black person.
July 30, 1966 · Bogalusa, Louisiana
Clarence Triggs was a bricklayer who had attended civil rights meetings sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality. He was found dead on a roadside, shot through the head. (photograph unavailable)
February 27, 1967 · Natchez, Mississippi
Wharlest Jackson, the treasurer of his local NAACP chapter, was one of many blacks who received threatening Klan notices at his job. After Jackson was promoted to a position previously reserved for whites, a bomb was planted in his car. It exploded minutes after he left work one day, killing him instantly.
May 12, 1967 · Jackson, Mississippi
Benjamin Brown, a former civil rights organizer, was watching a student protest from the sidelines when he was hit by stray gunshots from police who fired into the crowd.
February 8, 1968 · Orangeburg, South Carolina
Samuel Ephesians Hammond Jr., Delano Herman Middleton and Henry Ezekial Smith were shot and killed by police who fired on student demonstrators at the South Carolina State College campus.
April 4, 1968 · Memphis, Tennessee
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., a Baptist minister, was a major architect of the Civil Rights Movement. He led and inspired major non-violent desegregation campaigns, including those in Montgomery and Birmingham. He won the Nobel peace prize. He was assassinated as he prepared to lead a demonstration in Memphis.
More information is available at the Civil Rights Memorial Center. http://www.splcenter.org/civil-rights-memorial/civil-rights-martyrs
FBI Shuts Down Civil Rights Era Investigations - Agency will let old murder cases stay cold. By: Sherrilyn A. Ifill | Posted: March 10, 2010 at 6:13 AM
With little fanfare, the FBI announced in an article in the Washington Post last week that it was closing its investigations into all but a handful of unsolved civil rights era murders. The head of the FBI team assigned to investigate these cold cases stated that "there's maybe five to seven cases where we don't know who did it. For every other case, we got it."
This announcement came as a surprise to activists who have pushed the FBI and the Justice Department to re-open and fully investigate many of these cases. It is also a blow to the families of murdered blacks from that era, who have been the primary force pushing federal law enforcement officials to fully investigate and unearth the truth of what happened to their loved ones. http://www.theroot.com/views/fbi-shuts-down-civil-rights-era-investigations
Obama signs 2-year extension to Mueller's FBI tenure July 26, 2011 President Barack Obama has signed into law Tuesday legislation creating a new two-year term for FBI Director Robert Mueller beginning on August 3....The measure was swiftly approved by the Senate last week. The president will formally nominate Mueller for the position, which goes to the full Senate for a floor vote. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-07-26/politics/obama.mueller.term_1_obama-signs-mueller-s-fbi-fbi-director-robert-mueller?_s=PM:POLITICS
Department of Justice – 5/13/11 Statement of the Attorney General on Proposed Extension of FBI Director Mueller's Term WASHINGTON – The Attorney General made the following statement today:
“In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Bob Mueller led the transformation of the FBI into what today is the world’s pre-eminent counterterrorism agency. One of the most respected prosecutors of his generation before joining the FBI as its Director, he has earned the confidence of two Presidents for his ability to lead and his calmness under fire.
“A short-term legislative change will allow Bob to remain at the FBI for an additional two years so the President’s counterterrorism team can continue to work together seamlessly. The United States faces ongoing threats from terrorists intent on attacking us both at home and abroad, and it is crucial that the FBI have sustained, strong leadership to confront that threat. There is no better person for that job than Bob Mueller. I hope he will be allowed to continue providing the able leadership and unquestioned integrity for which he is known for the remainder of the President’s term.” http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2011/May/11-ag-608.html
Civil Rights: President Obama recognizes that our civil rights laws and principles are at the core of our nation. He has spent much of his career fighting to strengthen civil rights – as a community organizer, civil rights lawyer, Illinois State Senator, U.S. Senator, and now as President. He knows that our country grows stronger when all Americans have access to opportunity and are able to participate fully in our economy. Lead Criminal Justice Reform The President will lead the fight to build a more fair and equitable criminal justice system. He will seek to strengthen federal hate crime legislation and will work to ensure that federal law enforcement agencies do not resort to racial profiling. http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/civil-rights
3/9/09 Barack Obama went to Selma, Ala., two years ago to claim a place in the lineage of civil rights pioneers... His African-American attorney general returned to mark “Bloody Sunday” again — this time, with a pledge to restore the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division and end “the scourge of racial profiling.”
Much like Obama in 2007, Eric Holder’s appearance at Brown Chapel AME Church Sunday was part remembrance, part present-day politics“Under my leadership, the Civil Rights Division will fight discrimination and inequality just as fiercely as the Criminal Division fights crime,”
Holder promised in the sanctuary that often served as a local headquarters for civil rights activists in the ’60s. “Under my leadership, in all that it does, the Civil Rights Division will reflect the spirit of the movement that inspired its creation.” http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0309/19756.html
April 7th, 2010 The Department of Justice Plan for Open Government http://www.justice.gov/open/plan.html
Cold Blooded Murder, No Justice, Most were 100% Innocent and victims of a Judicial Lynching, aka Klan Lynching...
Whether a Judicial Lynching or a Klan lynching, the end results are the same and the victims are always African Americans (male or female)...However there is one slight difference...at a Judicial lynching, the Judge wear a black robe and at a klan lynching they wear white robes..."and hoods"
Victims of Klan Lynching Laura Nelson, http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_34.html
Joseph Richardson, http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_35.html
Victims of Judicial Lynchin, George and Virginia High,
The following account of the Judicial lynching of Laura and L. W. Nelson was drawn from Oklahoma papers: A teenage boy, L. W. Nelson, shot and killed Deputy George Loney, whose posse was searching the Nelson cabin for stolen meat. Laura Nelson, trying to protect her son, claimed to have shot Loney. http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_34.html
. May 25, 1911 - Her innocence was determined weeks before the lynching. They went up to the female jail (a cage in the courthouse) and took the woman out." She was "very small of stature, very black, about thirty five years old, and vicious." Mother and son were hauled by wagon six miles west of town to a new steel bridge crossing the Canadian River in a negro settlement, where they were gagged with tow sacks and hung from the bridge. http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_33.html
December 15, 1951. Harry T. and Harriette Moore died after the explosion under their bed on Christmas Day, their 25th wedding anniversary. Harry Moore organized the Brevard County branch of the NAACP in the 1930s and worked to register black voters in an area of the state then ruled by Jim Crow laws. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14380016/from/ET/ (both murdered)
On June 19, 1953, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg became the first civilians to be executed for espionage in U.S. history. http://www.truveo.com/the-rosenbergs-execution/id/404973506
9/9/12/2008 Evidence of false testimony in released Rosenberg transcripts: WASHINGTON (AP) - Newly released grand jury transcripts add strong evidence to the argument that the conviction and execution of Ethel Rosenberg in the Cold War's biggest espionage case (1951) were based on perjured testimony. In recent years, one of the two key witnesses against Rosenberg recanted his testimony. It now appears that the other witness made up her testimony too. The witnesses were Ethel's brother and sister-in-law, David and Ruth Greenglass. Thanks to the work of a team of lawyers and historians, the government released the grand jury testimony that formed the basis for the charges against Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-09-12-rosenbergs-perjury_N.htm?csp=34
1976. Sonia Jacobs & Jessee Tafero - Sonia Jacobs, Florida Convicted 1976; Released 1992 Ms. Jacobs and her companion, Jesse Tafero, were sentenced to death for the murder of 2 policemen at a highway rest stop in 1976. A third co-defendant received a life sentence after pleading guilty and testifying against Jacobs and Tafero. In addition to his testimony, the prosecution also presented the testimony of a jailhouse informant who claimed that Ms. Jacobs had confessed to her. The jury recommended a life sentence for Ms. Jacobs, but the judge overruled the jury and imposed death. A childhood friend and film maker, Micki Dickoff, later became interested in Ms. Jacobs' case and, together with Ms. Jacobs' lawyers, helped uncover the evidence that exposed both of these prosecution's witness as liars. A federal court overturned Ms. Jacobs's conviction on a writ of habeas corpus in 1992. Following the discovery that the chief prosecution witness had failed a lie-detector test, the prosecutor accepted a plea in which Ms. Jacobs did not admit guilt, and was immediately released. Jesse Tafero, whose conviction was based on much of the same highly questionable evidence, had been executed in 1990 before the evidence of innocence had been uncovered. http://www.patrickcrusade.org/wrongful.htm
"Up "Up on Ruby Ridge" ... On August 21, 1992, three U.S. marshals ambushed Weaver's 14-year old son, Sammy, and family friend Kevin Harris. Marshal Arthur Roderick shot the boy's dog, and when the boy fired back, a firefight ensued in which Marshal William Degan was killed. As Sammy Weaver was leaving the scene and running back towards the family's shack, Marshal Larry Cooper shot him in the back and killed him.
The next day, FBI snipers arrived on the scene and received official rules of engagement that declared that "any armed male adult observed in the vicinity of the Weaver cabin could and should be killed." Within an hour of the snipers' taking position, every adult in the cabin was either dead or severely wounded, though they had offered no resistance. FBI sniper Lon Horiuchi shot Randy Weaver in the back as he stood outside his shack and then fired a shot that killed Vicki Weaver as she stood in the cabin doorway holding their 10-month old baby.
Michael Kahoe was sentenced last fall for felony charges of obstruction of justice. He will serve 18 months in prison and pay a $4,000 fine. Kahoe could have received up to 10 years in prison and a $250,000 fine. But the real lesson of the Kahoe sentence is this: Cover up a killing, get a pension. Kahoe was permitted to stay on the FBI payroll (at $112,000 a year) for several months after he pled guilty so that he could qualify for a pension of $67,000 per year. If he had been fired at the time that he pled guilty to obstruction of justice, his pension would have been much less. What sort of Justice Department keeps people on its payroll after they plead guilty to obstruction of justice? http://www.fff.org/freedom/0198d.asp
ALL OF THE FOLLOWING WOMEN WERE VICTIMS OF: Wrongful Conviction, Framing, Cold-Blooded Murder, on Death Row, Judicial Lynching aka Klan Lynching"...and there was no "Due-Process-of-Law
Betty Smithey, longest-serving female prison inmate, released 8/14/12 For the past 49 years, Betty Smithey has woken up in a prison cell, the nation's longest serving female inmate. But on Tuesday, she woke up a free woman. Smithey, now 69, was granted parole by the Arizona Board of Executive Clemency on Monday. She was released from the Arizona State Prison Complex in Perryville, walking with a cane.
"It's wonderful driving down the road and not seeing any barbed wire," Smithey told the Arizona Republic. "I am lucky, so very lucky." At age 20, Smithey was convicted in the 1963 New Year's Day murder of Sandy Gerberick, a 15-month-old girl she had been babysitting. http://news.yahoo.com/betty-smithey-longest-serving-female-prison-inmate-released-143909907--abc-news-topstories.html
10/19/11 - An Atlanta woman spent 53 days behind bars because she has the same first name as a woman wanted by police for aggravated assault.
Teresa Culpepper says she was wrongly detained in Fulton County Jail because she shares the name Teresa with an assault suspect, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution reports.
“Her birth date didn't match. Her address didn't match. Her description didn't match. Other than the name Teresa, nothing matched,” said Ashleigh Merchant, Culpepper’s attorney.
The case of mistaken identity began when Culpepper called police after her truck had been stolen on Aug. 21, according to WSB-TV. When officers arrived, she was taken into custody on an aggravated assault charge. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/19/teresa-culpepper-jailed-53-days-because-first-name_n_1019730.html
Woman freed after years on death row NASHVILLE, Tenn. — 10/7/11 - A Memphis woman who spent a quarter century on death row and came within two months of being executed for hiring a stranger to kill her husband in 1985 was freed Friday from a Tennessee prison. Gaile Owens, 58, was greeted by a small group of supporters outside the Tennessee Prison for Women. She was all smiles as she pushed a yellow laundry cart containing her belongings past the prison's razor-wire fence to freedom.
Owens was sentenced to die in 1986, but her death sentence was commuted to life in prison last year and she won parole last week. . http://www.pjstar.com/free/x1038181617/Woman-freed-after-years-on-death-row
Italy appeals court clears Knox of murder October 3, 2011- PERUGIA, Italy (AP) — Amanda Knox left prison Monday, a free woman for the first time in four years, after an Italian appeals court threw out the young American's murder conviction for the brutal stabbing death of her British roommate after a drug-fueled sexual assault.
Knox, 24, collapsed in tears after the verdict was read, a stunning reversal in a sensational saga that became a cause celebre in the U.S. Her co-defendant and former boyfriend, Italian Raffaele Sollecito, also was cleared of killing 21-year-old Meredith Kercher in 2007. http://news.yahoo.com/italy-appeals-court-clears-knox-murder-195458468.html
The Nov. 21, 2006, killing of 92 year old Kathryn Johnston, shocked the nation and rocked Atlanta’s police force. It laid bare the corruption of an out-of-control narcotics squad that lied to get search warrants and planted drugs on suspects....Fulton County prosecutors were forced to review scores of pending cases and ultimately dismissed or reduced the charges in 69, meaning several likely criminals went free. http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Kathryne%20Johnson%202-22-09.pdf
Woman, 92, dies in shootout with cops: 11/22/06 Three Atlanta officers serving warrants hurt By Jeffry Scott, S.A. Reid The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Published on: http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Woman%2092.pdf
Police lied, informant says: 11/28/06 Man alleges officers asked him to go along with a false version of events surrounding a drug raid that ended in the shooting death of an elderly woman. Atlanta's chief calls for a multi-agency review. http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Woman%2092%20%20%26%20Snitch.pdf
On February 24, 2009, U.S. District Judge Julie Carnes sentenced former officer Gregg Junnier to six years in prison, Jason Smith to 10 years in prison and Arthur Tesler to five years in prison. Junnier and Tesler had faced recommended 10 years in prison under sentencing guidelines, while Smith faced 12 years and seven months. According to US Attorney David Nahmias, the sentences of Junnier and Smith were reduced after they provided information to assist in the prosecutions of the other ex-officers. Carnes also ordered Smith, Junnier and Tesler to reimburse Johnston's estate the cost of her burial, $8,180... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathryn_Johnston#Sentencing .
A Follow-Up to Ms. Kathryn Johnston 6/9/10 Two Atlanta officers fired after internal investigation into shooting By Ernie Suggs The Atlanta Journal-Constitution http://www.ajc.com/news/atlanta/two-atl
Two Atlanta police officers involved in the 2006 fatal shooting of 92-year-old Kathryn Johnston were fired after an internal investigation found they lied and falsified documents; another officer resigned and six more were disciplined, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution learned on Wednesday. -the latest round of fallout in the botched drug raid means 14 officers have been cited for some form of misconduct in the incident, including five who earlier pleaded guilty to federal charges, with four now serving prison sentences. http://community.livejournal.com/blackfolk/8081981.html
Lena Baker Case - (1945 mugshot) Lena Baker was the first and only woman to be executed in Georgia's electric chair. She was executed in 1945, after she was convicted of murdering a man who had imprisoned her. At the time of Baker's execution, the Georgia prison system was under scrutiny for reform. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2917
Lena Baker - Ga. Woman Pardoned 60 Years After Her Execution by Kathy Lohr August 26, 2005 A black maid executed in Georgia in 1945 is being granted a pardon by the state for killing a white man she said enslaved her. Lena Baker said she acted in self-defense, but a jury of white men convicted her after a one-day trial. Baker is the only woman to have been executed in the state's electric chair. On Aug. 30, Georgia authorities will present a proclamation to her descendants, including her grandnephew Roosevelt Curry, who led the drive to clear her name. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4818124
Hope & Redemption: The Lena Baker Story A chronicle of the life, trial, and execution of Lena Baker, the first woman to be sent to the electric chair in Georgia for the murder of her employer, who forced her into sexual slavery. Sixty years after her death, Baker was pardoned posthumously by the state Board of Pardons and Paroles.
Joyce Ann Brown toasts and gives tribute to two decades of freedom November 5, 2009 (Dallas Texas) For Joyce Ann Brown, November 3, 1989 will always be a day of ultimate freedom. That’s when Brown was released from prison after being incarcerated exactly nine years, five months and 24 days. For a crime she did not commit. http://dallasweekly.com/women/09-11-05_Joyce_Ann_Brown_toasts_and_gives_tribute_to_two_decades_of_freedom.php
Syracuse, NY -- A Syracuse judge has ordered the state to pay $250,000 to Shirley Kinge to compensate her for being wrongly prosecuted on faked evidence in the 1989 murders of a Dryden family. Court of Claims Judge Nicholas Midey Jr. indicated he took into consideration Kinge's loss of privacy and liberty in awarding her damages. She spent two years in prison before her conviction was overturned when it was revealed state police planted her fingerprint on a gasoline can to falsely implicate her in the crime http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2009/07/shirley_kinge_awarded_250000_f.html
(Sab(Sabrina Butler poses with her husband Joe Porter) Sabrina Butler, Mississippi Convicted 1990; Released 1995 Ms. Butler was sentenced to death for the murder of her nine-month-old child. At her trial, the prosecution sought to prove that Ms. Butler's account of the events leading to her son's death was false, and that she had inflicted the fatal wounds intentionally. On appeal, the court remanded the case for a new trial based on a number of flaws in the trial proceedings. By the time of the retrial, one of the Ms. Butler's neighbors had come forward with evidence that corroborated Ms. Butler's account: that the injuries to the infant occurred during the course of an unsuccessful attempt to administer CPR. The jury acquitted Ms. Butler of all charges http://www.patrickcrusade.org/wrongful.htm
Viola Fauver Gregg Liuzzo was a civil rights activist from Michigan and mother of five, who was murdered by Ku Klux Klan members after the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches in Alabama. One of the Klansmen in the car from which the shots were fired was a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) informant. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Liuzzo
The 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing The crater and other damage caused by the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, which killed four African-American girls. AP Photo. http://www.fbi.gov/page2/sept07/bapbomb092607.htm
Denise McNair...Addie Mae Collins...Carole Robertson ...Cynthia Wesley .On September 15, 1963 at 10:22 a.m., their world ended. http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/birmingham_church/5.html
HAMPTON -- 1912 was the last time a female was executed in Virginia -- when 17-year-old Virginia Christian died in the electric chair.
Christian, an African-American, got into an argument with her white boss, Ida Virginia Belote, in Hampton.
"Blacks knew if they stepped beyond their expected place in southern society, they could be punished and punished very quickly," said Michael Cobb, historian at the Hampton Museum, as he related the times under Jim Crow laws.
An account of the killing in the New York Times stated "the girl became enraged and felled Mrs. Belote with a poker. Then she pounded her head with a cuspidor and forced a towel down her throat."
Christian was arrested, put on trial and sentenced to death. Then Governor William Hodges Mann was inundated with requests to change the penalty; even Christian's mother appealed to the governor but to no avail. Christian was executed on August 16, 1912. http://www.wvec.com/news/local/Virginias-Last-Female-Execution-103560539.html
11/11/08 Woman Wrongly Convicted In Murder Case Released - She walked into the parole hearing a prisoner of the state of Nebraska, guilty of second-degree murder. JoAnn Taylor walked out about 25 minutes later, no longer a prisoner, no longer a killer in the eyes of the law. She had just witnessed an extraordinary admission by the state that she was wrongly convicted of the 1985 murder of Helen Wilson in Beatrice. http://www.beatricedailysun.com/articles/2008/11/11/news/local/doc49199babc256e985336614.txt
Wrongly Convicted of Murder, Gloria Killian Now Fights for Others' Freedom by Charles Davis November 05, 2010 - - Gloria Killian spent the better part of two decades in a California prison for a crime she didn’t commit. Convicted of masterminding a 1981 murder and robbery, Killian received a sentence of 32 years to life behind bars based on the testimony of a man who admittedly lied on the stand in exchange for a shorter sentence.
Finally freed in 2002, Killian could have chosen to spend the rest of her life sipping mojitos on a tropical island somewhere. And who would have blamed her? Instead, she’s dedicated herself to drawing attention to the plight of women in prison and the daily injustices perpetrated by a system that has the ignoble distinction of holding more than 2.3 million people behind bars, making the U.S. home to the largest prison population in world history. http://news.change.org/stories/wrongly-convicted-of-murder-gloria-killian-now-fights-for-others-freedom
Court Orders Ex-State Employee (woman) Freed From Prison: April 6, 2007 http://www.channel3000.com/news/11536803/detail.html
Cynthia Sommer - Wife cleared of murder 'overwhelmed with emotion' : 4/22/08 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24254002/from/ET/
Lynn DeJac - Mother Exonerated After 13 Years in Prison: 2/14/08 BUFFALO (AP) — A woman who spent 13 years in prison after being convicted of strangling her 13-year-old daughter has been exonerated by forensic evidence showing she died of a cocaine overdose, a prosecutor in the case said Wednesday. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-02-13-exoneratedmom_N.htm
McCushla Fuataha (left), Lucy Akatere (centre) and Tania Vini. Picture / Adrian Malloch $500,000 compo 'too little too late' Wednesday Oct 11, 2006 - - The lawyer for three women wrongly convicted and jailed over an attack on a teenage girl has rejected as inadequate Government compensation for the trio. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/three-kings/news/article.cfm?l_id=363&objectid=10405349
Angela Yvonne Davis, (born Jan. 26, 1944) Birmingham, Ala., U.S.) U.S. political activist. She was a doctoral candidate at the University of California at San Diego, studying under Herbert Marcuse. Because of her radical political views, her position as lecturer in philosophy at UCLA was not renewed. A champion of the cause of black prisoners, she grew particularly attached to George Jackson, a member of the so-called Soledad Brothers (after Soledad Prison). After an abortive courtroom escape and kidnapping attempt in August 1970 in which four people, including Jackson's brother and the trial judge, were killed, Davis was suspected of involvement, and she became one of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's most-wanted criminals. Arrested in New York City in October, she was acquitted of charges of murder, kidnapping, and conspiracy by an all-white jury. In 1980 she ran unsuccessfully for vice president on the Communist Party ticket. In 1991 Davis became a professor at the University of California at Santa Cruz. http://www.answers.com/topic/angela-davis.
May 11, 2010 Tonya Craft Female teacher acquitted of child molestation. Ga. woman faced 22 counts after accusations from three young girls. Since her arrest in May 2008, Craft has been fired from her job, lost custody of her daughter, lost her home and moved with her husband to Soddy-Daisy, Tenn., about 30 miles north of where she was on trial in Ringgold. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37094566/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/
Tonya Craft Sues Accusers In $25 Million Federal Lawsuit - Defendants Include Parents Of Accusers, Investigators May 24, 2010: Tonya Craft, who was absolved of all charges of child molestation in a highly-publicized trial at Ringgold, has filed a lawsuit against her accusers in Federal Court in Rome, Ga. The 52-page complaint asks $25 million in compensatory and punitive damages.http://www.chattanoogan.com/articles/article_176349.asp
Teacher cleared of sex abuse makes peace with her ex 12/6/10 “We worked it out because it was for the children. We were in a room by ourselves … we shed some tears. We talked about some things,” Craft said in New York on Monday during a joint appearance with Henke on TODAY. “We said a lot of things that needed to be out in the open.”http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/40528974/ns/today-today_people/
Kidney-swap sisters released from jail 1/7/11 Life sentences suspended on condition that one donates organ to the other : PEARL, Miss. — Two sisters whose life sentences were suspended on the Condition that one donate a kidney to the other were released from a Mississippi prison on Friday after serving 16 years for an armed robbery. Jamie and Gladys Scott waved to reporters and yelled "we're free" and "God bless y'all" as they left the Central Mississippi Correctional Facility in an SUV. They had been incarcerated for 16 years. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40963267/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/
The Scott sisters, who are African American and had no prior record, have been backed by civil rights advocates who hailed the governor's decision, saying it corrected a "miscarriage of justice." They have insisted they were innocent and that witnesses were pressured into testifying against them. Three boys, who netted only $11 in the robbery, served only two years of an eight-year sentence. The Scott sisters, who had five children between, served 16 years in prison and had exhausted all appeals. They would have been eligible for parole in 2014. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/scott-sisters-kidney-donation-threatens-organ-transplant-laws/story?id=12515616 .
This site is dedicated to women who are in prison and have been wrongly convicted … imagine the distress of knowing each day of your is life passing by and you are completely innocent of the crime that you were convicted of. What a horrible thing to live with. http://home.earthlink.net/~wronglyconvicted/index.html
Most, if not All of the following men were wrongly convicted, framed and some were on Death Row and none had Due Process of Law. Some of the below men were in fact victims of a Judicial Lynching aka Klan Lynching and of Cold-Blooded Murder.
Man convicted in fatal arson to be freed May 31, 2012 CHICAGO, May 31 (UPI) -- A man convicted of setting a 1984 fire in Chicago that killed a woman and her five children is being released after prosecutors dropped the case against him. James Kluppelberg, 46, who was sentenced to life in prison, had maintained his innocence from the start, the Chicago Tribune reported.
The fire killed Elva Lupercio, 28, and her five children, ages 3 to 10, at their home in the Back of the Yards neighborhood. Cook County prosecutors, who had challenged appeal efforts, told a judge Wednesday they wanted to dismiss the charges.
Read more: http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2012/05/31/Man-convicted-in-fatal-arson-to-be-freed/UPI-90811338490863/#ixzz20KfJQduy
Man, 24, cleared after 7 years in prison: May 17, 2012 at 2:16 AM LONDON, May 17 (UPI) -- A London man who spent seven years in prison after being convicted of murder at age 18 was released Wednesday. Sam Hallam, 24, was expected to be formally exonerated Thursday, The Guardian reported. A prosecutor said Wednesday the government would not oppose his appeal or release. The victim, Essayas Kassahun, 21, was killed in a gang fight in 2004. His lawyer, Henry Blaxland, blamed police and the Crown Prosecution Service for relying on two eyewitnesses who changed their stories, and failing to investigate Hallam's alibi.
Read more: http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2012/05/17/Man-24-cleared-after-7-years-in-prison/UPI-56981337235404/#ixzz20Kg7ex6T
Man freed after 16 years in rape case GRAND JUNCTION, Colo., April 30, 2012 A Colorado man wrongly convicted of a 1994 murder walked free after almost 16 years in prison because of new DNA evidence police say points to a new suspect. Judge Brian Flynn signed a motion Monday, filed jointly by the Mesa County District Attorney's Office and attorney Danyel Joffee, to vacate the 1996 conviction of Joffee's client, Robert Dewey.
"He was unjustly imprisoned for a hideous crime he did not commit. I believe he has the courage and the stamina to put these dark days behind him and get on with his life. He was always optimistic that he was going to be released," Joffe said.
Read more: http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2012/04/30/DNA-Man-freed-after-16-years-in-rape-case/UPI-22381335831236/#ixzz20KgbZ2lP
Wrongly convicted Colorado man set free after 16 years - Apr 30, 2012 GRAND JUNCTION, Co. (Reuters) - A Colorado man wrongly convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the rape and murder of a woman found strangled with a dog leash was exonerated on the basis of new DNA evidence and set free on Monday after spending more than 16 years behind bars.
Wrongfully Convicted Man Awarded $25 Million: Attorneys for the plaintiff say they believe the award is the largest ever by a U.S. jury in a wrongful conviction case 1/25/12 A federal Jury Tuesday awarded $25 million to a suburban man who sued the City of Chicago after spending 16 years in prison for a murder he didn’t commit. Attorneys for the plaintiff, Thaddeus "T.J." Jimenez, say they believe the award is the largest ever by a U.S. jury in a wrongful conviction case. http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local/thaddeus-tj-jimenez-wrongful-conviction-138016943.html
Ex-death row inmate in SC walks out a free man - Mar 2, 2012 GREENWOOD, S.C. (AP) — Edward Lee Elmore glanced at the ceiling when a judge asked him if he was sure he wanted to plead guilty to the murder he has spent decades denying. He whispered to his lawyer, who had told him "freedom is justice," and then looked toward the heavens again.
"Yes sir," he said quietly. With those words, he ended a 30-year stint in prison that saw 30 of his friends on death row die.
On Friday, prosecutors dropped rape and burglary charges, and an hour after the hearing, Elmore walked out of the Greenwood County courthouse a free man to the cheers of those brothers and sisters. http://news.yahoo.com/ex-death-row-inmate-sc-walks-free-man-182441968.html
Judge overturns conviction, helps free inmate – Nov 26, 2011 DECATUR, Ga. -- Dwight was originally convicted and sentenced to life in prison last year for a violent armed robbery in Rockdale County. Prosecutors allege the then-21-year-old carjacked a woman in DeKalb County and used her stolen Chevy Corisca as the getaway car in the Rockdale robbery.
In a remarkable reversal, Dwight had his conviction and life sentence for a 2009 armed robbery overturned by the same judge responsible for putting him behind bars a year earlier.
Referring to himself as the "13th juror," Rockdale County Superior Court Judge Sidney Nation granted Nathan Dwight a new trial. http://www.atlantanewshub.com/judge-overturns-conviction-helps-free-inmate/
10/5/11 The former grocery store employee was convicted on circumstantial evidence and sentenced to life in prison in August 1986. However, thanks to the New York-based Innocence Project, new DNA evidence came to light which showed that another man was responsible. Enjoying the warmth of sun on his face - man is freed from prison after nearly 25 years following wrongful conviction for wife's murde.The 57-year-old was walking from the Williamson County courthouse in Taylor, Texas, on Tuesday after a judge freed him from the life sentence he had been serving after being wrongly convicted of murdering his wife Christine. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2045495/Michael-Morton-wrongfully-convicted-wifes-murder-freed-prison.html?ito=feeds-newsxml
Troy’s Funeral October 1, 2011 -Even in his darkest hour Troy Davis saw light. In the face of death he showed compassion, resolution and conviction—a bravery that will forever be remembered.
So together, we will honor Troy’s memory and work to end the terror of state sponsored execution. It was a goal of Fredrick Douglass, Ida B Wells, and Thurgood Marshall. And it is a goal that the NAACP will carry forward in the weeks and months ahead.
A punishment reserved almost exclusively for poor people of all colors, and especially for those like Troy who are of color, is not a punishment. It’s the most irreversible and violent act of discrimination, and the ultimate violation of human rights. http://georgehigh.com/email%20and%20letters/Troy%27s%20Funeral.pdf
Bill Clinton kkk, had a hand in the lynching of Troy Davis
Ebenezer pastor continues fight against dealth penalty September 25, 2011 - One of Atlanta’s prominent religious leaders took to the pulpit Sunday and argued that that the battle against the death penalty should not die with this week’s execution of convicted cop killer Troy Davis.
The Rev. Raphael Warnock called on congregants at Ebenezer Baptist Church to live their faith through both justice and mercy. Both were absent, he said, when the state executed Davis Wednesday for the 1989 murder of police officer Mark MacPhail in Savannah.
“I’m afraid the word justice has fallen out of the American Christian lexicon,” Warnock said. “That’s how people can worship God on Sunday and break out in applause the next week when they hear how many people have been executed.” http://www.ajc.com/news/ebenezer-pastor-continues-fight-1188456.html
Wardens Protest Execution of Troy Davis -- a Rare Move in America - Posted: 9/26/11
In the waning hours of protests against the execution on Troy Davis by the state of Georgia last Wednesday, one action drew particular notice: A group of six former wardens and correctional officials pleading for clemency and suggesting that prison staffers be allowed to refuse to take part in the death process.
"While most of the prisoners whose executions we participated in accepted responsibility for the crimes for which they were punished," the wardens' statement read, "some of us have also executed prisoners who maintained their innocence until the end. It is those cases that are most haunting to an executioner.... http://www.huffingtonpost.com/greg-mitchell/wardens-protest-execution_b_980889.html
Ga. executes Davis; supporters claim injustice 9/22/11 - ACKSON, Ga. (AP) — Strapped to a gurney in Georgia's death chamber, Troy Davis lifted his head and declared one last time that he did not kill police officer Mark MacPhail. Just a few feet away behind a glass window, MacPhail's son and brother watched in silence.
"I am innocent," Davis said moments before he was executed Wednesday night. "All I can ask ... is that you look deeper into this case so that you really can finally see the truth. I ask my family and friends to continue to fight this fight." http://news.yahoo.com/ga-executes-davis-supporters-claim-injustice-031409578.html
TODAY, Georgia Murders Troy Davis Dave Zirin on September 20, 2011
From day one, Troy has maintained his innocence. But he was the wrong color, in the wrong place, at the wrong time, with the wrong bank account and the wrong legal team, so he was thrown into the death house with little fanfare. Yet the tireless work of Troy’s family, particularly his sister Martina, brought international attention to the case. From former President Jimmy Carter, to Archbishop Desmond Tutu, to Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice Norman Fletcher, to Pope Benedict XVI, to Reagan’s former FBI Director, William Sessions, to the more than one million people who signed petitions, the call has gone out to spare Troy’s life. But the Board of Pardons and Paroles didn’t care. Previously the Board issued a statement that they would only allow the execution to go through, if there was “no doubt” as to his guilt. They lied. http://www.thenation.com/blog/163498/today-georgia-murders-troy-davis
April 16, 2009 Federal court rejects Troy Davis’ appeal: Killer gets 30-day stay of execution to pursue appeals: http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Troy%20Davis%20April%2016%2C%2009.pdf
."Appeals Court To Hear Troy Davis Case" 11/20/08
.High court turns down Ga. death row inmate: 10/15/08
Supreme Court stays execution for Ga. man: 9/24/08 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26842816/from/ET/ .
Georgia Supreme Court denies new trial for convicted cop killer: 4/14/08 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/cop%20killer.pdf
11/13/07 Condemned killer Troy Anthony Davis today will get another chance to try to win a new trial based on testimony that suggests he did not kill a Savannah police officer in 1989 .http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/New%20Trial%20Davis-Poilice%20killing.pdf
..Parole board will hear witnesses in Davis case 7/25/07 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Parole%20Board%20%20II.pdf
Troy Davis case - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Troy Anthony Davis (October 9, 1968 – September 21, 2011) was an American man convicted of and executed for the August 19, 1989, murder of police officer Mark MacPhail in Savannah, Georgia.
Federal appeals - In December 2001, Davis filed a habeas corpus petition in the United States District Court. From 1996 onwards, seven of the nine principal prosecution eyewitnesses changed all or part of their trial testimony. Dorothy Ferrell, for example, stated in a 2000 affidavit that she felt under pressure from police to identify Davis as the shooter because she was on parole for a shoplifting conviction. In a 2002 affidavit, Darrell Collins wrote that the police had scared him into falsely testifying by threatening to charge him as an accessory to the crime, and alleged that he had not seen Davis do anything to Young. Antoine Williams, Larry Young and Monty Holmes also stated in affidavits that their earlier testimony implicating Davis had been coerced by strong-arm police tactics. In addition, three witnesses signed affidavits stating that Redd Coles had confessed to the murder to them. The State of Georgia argued that the evidence had been procedurally defaulted since it should have been introduced earlier. Davis's petition was denied in May 2004; the judge stated in an opinion that the "submitted affidavits are insufficient to raise doubts as to the constitutionality of the result at trial, there is no danger of a miscarriage of justice in declining to consider the claim." He also rejected other defense contentions about unfair jury selection, ineffective defense counsel and prosecutorial misconduct. The decision was appealed to the 11th Circuit Court, which heard oral arguments in the case in September 2005. On September 26, 2006, the court affirmed the denial of federal habeas corpus relief, and determined that Davis had not made "a substantive claim of actual innocence" or shown that his trial was constitutionally unfair; the circuit court found that neither prosecutors nor defense counsel had acted improperly or incompetently at trial. A petition for panel rehearing was denied in December 2006.
Legal experts argued that a major obstacle to granting Davis a new trial was the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, passed after the Oklahoma City bombing, which bars death row inmates from later presenting evidence they could have presented at trial. Members of the legal community have criticized the restricting effect of the 1996 Act on the ability of wrongfully convicted persons to prove their innocence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troy_Davis_case
Bill Clinton kkk - New Limits on Prisoner Appeals: Major Shift of Power From U.S. to States April 19, 1996 - Once President Clinton signs the legislation approved today by the House restricting appeals by death-row inmates and other prisoners, he will be imposing the most vigorous constraints on the constitutional right to seek Federal review of convictions since Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in the Civil War.
The new habeas corpus law, a cornerstone of the counterterrorism legislation adopted in the House by a vote of 293 to 133, is a monumental shift of power to the state courts from the Federal judiciary.
Under the legislation, which the Senate approved on Wednesday night by a vote of 91 to 8, Federal judges will be required to defer to the legal conclusions of state courts about when a conviction violates the Constitution. The measure also imposes new high standards, tight time limits and stringent restrictions on successive appeals.
The legislation includes many provisions that the President wants and that civil rights groups find objectionable. For example, it would permit the Government to deport suspected terrorists without presenting a judge with the evidence used against them; it would authorize the Government to freeze the assets of foreign organizations that the Administration considers terrorist, and it would permit the Government to exclude foreigners who belong to suspected terrorist organizations from entering the United States, even if there is no evidence that they had broken the law. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/04/19/us/analysis-new-limits-prisoner-appeals-major-shift-power-us-states.html?ref=billclinton
Emmett Till... Before & After... His death helped spark the civil rights movement. It demonstrated the brutality of southern violence towards African-Americans, and created outrage across the nation. Emmett's mother, Mamie, insisted at his funeral that he be given an open-casket, so others could see what they had done to her 14 year old boy. http://www.emmetttillmurder.com/
The Shocking Story of Approved Killing in Mississippi - This article is the infamous confession of J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant to the kidnapping and killing of Emmett Till. Reporter William Bradford Huie reportedly paid the men $4000 for their story. It appeared in Look 20 (24 January 1956): http://www.emmetttillmurder.com/Look%201956.htm
Was Was the youngest person ever executed innocent? 09/28/2011 -It's 1944, and police escort a 14-year-old boy into the death chamber. He stands just 5'1 and weighs a mere 95 pounds…This young boy is about to be the youngest person ever to be executed in the history of the United States. Before there was a Troy Davis there was George Junius Stinney, Jr. and the state of South Carolina electrocuted him.
Stinney was accused of murdering two young white girls. They were eleven year-old Betty June Binnicker and 8-year-old Mary Emma Thames. The two girls went missing one day after they were riding their bikes while looking for flowers on the wrong side of the tracks in a small working class town of Alcolu, South Carolina where whites and blacks were separated by railroad tracks. The girls went missing and were later found dead in a ditch, murdered with a railroad spike.
Stinney confessed. There is no written record of his confession in the archives. There is no physical evidence linking Stinney to the murder. There is no paper record of Stinney's conviction.
The lack of any physical evidence or archived police and court records is the reason South Carolina attorney Steve McKenzie, who detailed Stinney's story to TheGrio, said he wants to re-open the case of the execution George Junius Stinney, Jr. McKenzie said he believes Stinney was innocent of the murder and with "no investigative notes, no trial transcripts, no written confession, and nothing to indicate guilt," it is clear Stinney's trial and subsequent execution were suspicious at best and a miscarriage of justice at worst.
This was South Carolina in 1944, with a black male defendant, two young white female victims, and an all white, male jury. Stinney never stood a chance. http://www.thegrio.com/news/was-the-youngest-person-ever-executed-innocent.php
January 21, 2014 - - SUMTER, S.C. (AP) — A 14-year-old boy executed by South Carolina nearly 70 years ago is finally getting another day in court.
Supporters of George Stinney plan to argue Tuesday that there wasn't enough evidence to find him guilty in 1944 of killing a 7-year-old and an 11-year-old girl. The black teen was found guilty of killing the white girls in a trial that lasted less than a day in the tiny Southern mill town of Alcolu, separated, as most were in those days, by race.
Nearly all the evidence, including a confession that was central to the case against Stinney, has disappeared, along with the transcript of the trial. Lawyers working on behalf of Stinney's family have sworn statements from his relatives accounting for his time the day the girls were killed, from a cellmate saying he never confessed to the crime and from a pathologist disputing the findings of the autopsy done on the victims.
The novel decision whether to give an executed man a new trial will be in the hands of Circuit Judge Carmen Mullen. Experts say it is a longshot. South Carolina law has a high bar for new trials based on evidence that could have been discovered at the time of the trial. Also, the legal system in the state before segregation often found defendants guilty with evidence that would be considered scant today. If Mullen finds in favor of Stinney, it could open the door for hundreds of other appeals…. http://news.yahoo.com/trial-sought-sc-boy-14-executed-1944-172035983.html
Leo Frank was Wrongly Accused, Falsely Convicted and Wantonly Murdered: August 16, 1915 - A caravan of eight vehicles bearing 25 armed men from the Atlanta area arrived at the Georgia StatePrison at Milledgeville around 10 p.m. The intruders seized Frank and departed into the night. Seven of the cars then took back roads headed for Marietta, while one car acted as a decoy in case of pursuit. Sometime early on the morning of the 17th, they reached the outskirts of Marietta. Here, at Frey's grove near Mary Phagan's girlhood home, the men decided to hang Frank from an oak tree. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FrankLynchedLarge.jpg
.No one was ever criminally charged in connection with Frank's abduction and murder. In 1986 Frank was posthumously pardoned. http://www.jewwatch.com/jew-leaders-frank-leo-frank-case.html
List of the Leo Frank Lynchers
http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Leo%20Frank.pdf New marker will remember the 1915 lynching of Leo Frank 03/07/08
William Patterson...William Patterson was born in San Francisco on 27th August, 1891. His mother had been a slave and spent her childhood on a Virginia plantation. In 1923 Patterson and two friends opened a law office in Harlem. Patterson was involved in several campaigns to free people wrongly convicted of criminal acts. This included the defence of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, the Scottsboro Case, where nine young black men were falsely charged with the rape of two white women on a train. Patterson was also involved in the defence of Angela Davis and Black Panthers leaders arrested during the 1960s. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USApattersonW.htm
Ferdinando Nicola Sacco (April 22, 1891) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (June 11, 1888) both executed August 23, 1927, were two Italian-born laborers and anarchists who were tried, convicted and executed via electrocution on August 23, 1927 in Massachusetts for the 1920 armed robbery and murder of a pay-clerk and a security guard in Braintree, Massachusetts..Today, the case continues to incite controversy based on questions regarding culpability, the question of the innocence or guilt of Sacco and Vanzetti, and conformance, the question of whether the trials were fair to Sacco and Vanzetti. On August 23, 1977, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis signed a proclamation declaring, "Any stigma and disgrace should be forever removed from the names of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. We are not here to say whether these men are guilty or innocent. We are here to say that the high standards of justice, which we in Massachusetts take such pride in, failed Sacco and Vanzetti." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicola_Sacco
Lynching Of Thomas Shipp And Abram Smith Marion, Ind, 1930: A mob of 10,000 whites took sledgehammers to the county jailhouse doors to get at these two young blacks accused of raping a white girl; the girl’s uncle saved the life of a third by proclaiming the man’s innocence. http://digitaljournalist.org/issue0309/lm18.html
"The Scottsboro Boys" Trials 1931 - 1937 No crime in American history-- let alone a crime that never occurred-- produced as many trials, convictions, reversals, and retrials as did an alleged gang rape of two white girls by nine black teenagers on a Southern Railroad freight run on March 25, 1931. Over the course of the two decades that followed, the struggle for justice of the "Scottsboro Boys," as the black teens were called, made celebrities out of anonymities, launched and ended careers, wasted lives, produced heroes, opened southern juries to blacks, exacerbated sectional strife, and divided America's political left... http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/scottsb.htm
Feb. 12, 2010 - SCOTTSBORO, Ala. - Ala. town marks infamous case 8 decades later Museum acknowledges painful past of ‘The Scottsboro Boys' - The very name of this Alabama city has stood for racial injustice for almost 80 years. Nine young black men went on trial in Scottsboro in 1931 on charges of raping two white women in a case that made headlines worldwide. The defendants - eight of whom were sentenced to die - came to be known as "The Scottsboro Boys" and the charges were revealed as a sham. Now, four generations later, Scottsboro is acknowledging its painful past. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35367474/ns/travel-destinations/
3 men convicted in 1993 Cub Scout slayings go free - 8/19/11
Damien Echols, left, Jessie Misskelley, Jr., center, and Jason Baldwin sit at a table before a news conference at the Craighead County Court House in Jonesboro, Ark., Friday, Aug. 19, 2011, after the three were released after pleading guilty to the 1993 deaths of three West Memphis, Ark., children. The defendants, known by their supporters as the West Memphis 3, agreed to a legal maneuver that lets them maintain their innocence while acknowledging prosecutors have enough evidence against them. Photo: Danny Johnston / AP Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/news/article/3-men-convicted-in-1993-Cub-Scout-slayings-go-free-2128305.php#ixzz1VWFlF67J
AP: NJ man sues over double murder conviction: - – Fri May 27, 2011 NEWARK, N.J. – A man whose double murder conviction was overturned after he served more than 20 years in prison has sued New Jersey's attorney general and county prosecutors.
Paul Kamienski was one of three people convicted in the 1983 murders of a couple at the Jersey Shore in what prosecutors characterized as a drug deal that went bad. A federal appeals court ruled the evidence at Kamienski's trial wasn't enough to warrant a guilty verdict. Kamienski was released from prison in 2009.
His lawsuit was filed Thursday. It claims malicious and wrongful prosecution and seeks monetary damages. Spokesmen for the attorney general's office and Ocean County prosecutor's office declined to comment Friday. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110527/ap_on_re_us/us_murder_convictions_overturned_lawsuit
Dallas man freed after DNA evidence cleared him Thu May 12, 2011 DALLAS – A courtroom packed with family and friends burst into applause Thursday when a judge freed a Dallas man who spent 27 years in prison for aggravated sexual assault before DNA evidence cleared him.
Johnny Pinchback, the 22nd person to be exonerated through DNA testing in Dallas County since 2001, was found to have been wrongly convicted of raping two teenage girls in a Dallas field in 1984. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110512/ap_on_re_us/us_dna_hearing_texas
Exonerated inmate doesn't get $14 million – 3/29/11 - WASHINGTON – An ideologicallydivided Supreme
Court overturned a $14 million judgment given to a former death row inmatewho was convicted of murder after New Orleans prosecutors withheld evidence in his trial.http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110329/ap_on_re_us/us_supreme_court_exonerated_inmate
Wed Mar 16, 2011 - - LOS ANGELES – A man who spent 20 years in prison for a drive-by killing was embraced Wednesday by tearful family members and friends when he was freed from prison, days after most of the witnesses at his trial recanted testimony."It's been a long time coming but I'm happy I'm here," Francisco "Franky" Carrillo told reporters after he walked out of Men's Central Jail. "It's a beautiful day in L.A., man. I've always had faith and confidence that justice would prevail and here's proof of it."Linda Starr, legal director of the Northern California Innocence Project, which fought to overturn Carrillo's murder conviction, was surprised to see him on the street."They opened the door and let him out," Starr said. "We had no warning whatsoever. He came walking down the sidewalk." http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110316/ap_on_re_us/us_conviction_overturned
prison 01/04/2011 – DALLAS – Prosecutors declared a Texas man innocent Monday of a rape and robbery that put him in prison for 30 years, more than any other DNA exoneree in Texas. DNA test results that came back barely a week after Cornelius Dupree Jr. was paroled in July excluded him as the person who attacked aDallas woman in 1979, prosecutors said Monday. Dupree was just 20 when he was sentenced to 75 years in prison in 1980. "Our Conviction Integrity Unit thoroughly reinvestigated this case, tested the biological evidence and based on the results, concluded Cornelius Dupree did not commit this crime," Dallas County District Attorney Craig Watkins said… Watkins, the first black DA in Texas history, has also pointed to what he calls "a convict-at-all-costs mentality" that he says permeated the DA's office before he arrived in 2007. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110104/ap_on_re_usdna_exoneration
Texan freed by DNA pleads guilty to 1986 murder 12/3/10 DALLAS – A Texas man who spent 21 years in prison for murder pleaded guilty to the same crime on Friday, three years after he was freed from prison and granted a new trial by DNA evidence that showed his original conviction was tainted. Clay Chabot was sentenced to time served under an agreement that allows prosecutors to claim a conviction and the defendant to go home. He was taken into custody by sheriff's deputies but was expected to be processed out quickly. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101203/ap_on_re_us/us_dna_murder_c
Rape charge against vindicated Houston man dropped: 11/22/10 HOUSTON – The aggravated assault charge that kept an innocent Houston man imprisoned for 27 years was formally dropped Monday, according to the Harris County District Attorney's Office. Dismissal of the charge came a month after the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals formally ruled 44-year-old Michael Anthony Green innocent. Green was released from prison in July after Harris County prosecutors reopened his case and new DNA tests they commissioned cleared him of the 1983 rape of a woman who had been abducted. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101122/ap_on_re_us/us_dna_exoneration
the lynching of an unidentified African American male in a coastal Georgia swamp. 1902. Coastal Georgia's whites maintained a paternalistic attitude toward blacks and had little faith in violence as a resolution to racial conflict. A lower than average dependence on black labor, a tradition of political involvement by blacks, a higher than average percentage of black land ownership, and, consequently, greater black independence from whites accounted for a significantly reduced threat of lethal violence toward blacks than in other regions of the Cotton Belt. Despite these facts, thirteen blacks were lynched between 1880 and 1902 in the Georgia low country. http://withoutsanctuary.org/pics_53.html.
10/13/10 JOLIET, Ill. – An attorney says a small-town police officer who's free after being wrongly jailed for a series of deadly shootings along the Illinois-Indiana border is the victim of a botched investigation. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101013/ap_on_re_us/us_officer_rural_shootings
Miss. judge frees 2 men wrongly jailed 30 years 9/16/10 HATTIESBURG, Miss. – A judge on Thursday freed two men who spent three decades in prison before DNA evidence showed they didn't rape a woman and cut her throat in a grisly 1979 attack. A crowded courtroom erupted in applause after Forrest County Circuit Judge Robert Helfrich's ruled to set aside the men's guilty pleas, ending what some described as a 30-year ordeal for the imprisoned .http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100916/ap_on_re_us/us_mississippi_dna_exoneration
7/27/10 NEW YORK — The city of New York has agreed to pay more than $7 million to settle a civil lawsuit stemming from the fatal 50-bullet police shooting of an unarmed man on his wedding day. The settlement filed in Brooklyn federal court on Tuesday pays $3.25 million to the estate of Sean Bell, who was killed in 2006 outside a strip club in Queens while leaving his bachelor party. As part of the settlement, the city agreed to pay $3 million to Joseph Guzman and $900,000 to Trent Benefield, both of whom were wounded in the shooting that killed their friend. The lawsuit had accused the city of wrongful death, negligence, assault and civil rights violations. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38437950/ns/us_news/
8/4/10 Charges dropped against Ill. man in girls' deaths: - - WAUKEGAN, Ill. – Prosecutors in northern Illinois have dropped first-degree murder charges against a Zion man who's been jailed since 2005 in the stabbing deaths of two young girls. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100804/ap_on_re_us/us_girls_dead_dna
6/15/10 Judge releases Marine in Iraqi war crimes case SAN DIEGO - A military judge has allowed a Marine sergeant convicted of murder in one of the biggest war crimes cases to emerge from the Iraq war to walk free, nearly two months after a military appeals court ruled he had an unfair trial. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100615/ap_on_re_us/us_marines_iraq_shootings
June 9, 2010 New York man freed after 15 years in prison - Brooklyn DA won't retry mishandled case of slain rabbi-landlord NEW YORK - A man who spent 15 years in prison on a New York City murder conviction has been freed after the Brooklyn district attorney's office conceded the case had been mishandled and should be thrown out. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37603340/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/
Joseph Richardson was removed from the county jail in Leitchfield, Ky. by a mob and lynched on the public square at 1:00 a.m. on September 26, 1913. The mob presumed he had assaulted an eleven-year-old white girl named Ree Goff. The photographer who took this picture peddled the cards door to door. A descendent of the original purchaser expressed the remorse the townspeople felt upon recognizing the victim as the town drunk, who had "merely stumbled into the child, and not even torn her dress. "http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_35.html .
June 3, 2010 NEW YORK - The city on Thursday agreed to pay $9.9 million to an innocent man who spent 19 years behind bars after being framed by a notorious New York Police Department detective who doubled as killer for the mob. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37498690/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/
DNA clears Texas man who spent 30 years in prison 01/04/2011 – DALLAS – Prosecutors declared a Texas man innocent Monday of a rape and robbery that put him in prison for 30 years, more than any other DNA exoneree in Texas. DNA test results that came back barely a week after Cornelius Dupree Jr. was paroled in July excluded him as the person who attacked aDallas woman in 1979, prosecutors said Monday. Dupree was just 20 when he was sentenced to 75 years in prison in 1980. "Our Conviction Integrity Unit thoroughly reinvestigated this case, tested the biological evidence and based on the results, concluded Cornelius Dupree did not commit this crime,"Dallas County District Attorney Craig Watkins said… Watkins, the first black DA in Texas history, has also pointed to what he calls "a convict-at-all-costs mentality" that he says permeated the DA's office before he arrived in 2007. . http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110104/ap_on_re_us/us_dna_exoneration
2/17/10 Judges free NC murder convict after 16 years - RALEIGH, N.C. A man convicted of murdering a prostitute was exonerated and set free Wednesday in the first win for North Carolina's innocence commission, the only panel of its kind in the nation. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100217/ap_on_re_us/us_testing_innocence
May 5, 2010 CLEVELAND An Ohio man tasted freedom for the first time in nearly 30 years on Wednesday after a judge vacated his conviction because DNA evidence showed he did not rape an 11-year-old girl. "It finally happened, I've been waiting," Raymond Towler, 52, said as he hugged sobbing family members in the courtroom.http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100505/ap_on_re_us/us_rape_conviction_overturned
James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan on 21st June, 1964 while trying to get African Americans in the southern United States registered to vote. In the summer 1964, 30 black homes and 37 black churches were firebombed and over 80 volunteers were beaten by white mobs or racist police officers. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkkk.htm .
April 1, 2010 - Two Connecticut men imprisoned for 16 years in a murder that a judge says they did not commit were ordered freed on Thursday. Ronald Taylor and George Gould were joined by their wives, families and other supporters in Rockville Superior Court, where Judge Stanley Fuger ordered their release. http://www.1010wins.com/pages/6709011.php?contentType=4&contentId=5852364
3/19/10 NEW HAVEN, Conn. – Ronald Taylor was handcuffed in a hospital bed where he was being treated for cancer when his lawyer came to tell him a Connecticut judge overturned his conviction in a 1993 killing. The 51-year-old Taylor wept. He had served 16 years of an 80-year sentence. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100319/ap_on_re_us/us_murder_convictions_overturned
1/14/10 Nearly 24 years after he was wrongfully convicted of murder, Michael Tillman is free, and exonerated. http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local-beat/TIllman-goes-free-81511792.html
Four Black Men Wrongly Convicted Of Murder, Win $36 Million Settlement: - The four men sued Cook County, claiming the sheriffs officers who investigated the 1978 case were racists who hid evidence that would have helped the defense and ignored leads pointing to the real killers. Williams, 44, and Jimerson, 46, went to death row; Raines, 45, and Adams, 41, were sentenced to life in prison. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_17_95/ai_54731499/?tag=content;col1
12/28/09 Pittsburgh City Council has approved a $3.77 million settlement with a man who spent 19 years in prison before his rape conviction was overturned by DNA evidence in 2005. http://www.thepittsburghchannel.com/news/22073289/detail.html
July 31, 1908, Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky: Joseph Riley, and Virgil Jones, Robert Jones and Thomas Jones were discontented sharecroppers in Logan County. Rufus Browder had been a friend and lodge brother of the four sharecroppers. He and James Cunningham, the farmer for whom he worked, had an argument. Browder turned and walked away when Cunningham cursed him and struck him with a whip. Cunningham then drew his pistol and shot Browder in the chest. Browder, in self-defense, returned the fire and killed Cunningham. After having his wounds tended to, Browder was arrested and sent to Louisville for his own protection. Subsequently, the three Jones men and Riley were conducting a lodge meeting in a private home when police entered and arrested them for disturbing the peace. In fact, they were arrested for having expressed approval of Browder's actions and discontentment with their employers. (Whites feared that black lodges were planning assassinations.) One hundred men entered the jail and demanded the prisoners. The jailer complied, and the four men were lynched. A note pinned to one of the men read, "Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone or you will go the same way." http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_64.html
12/16/09 - Man freed after 28 years in prison –A Washington man who spent 28 years in prison for raping and murdering a 21-year-old Georgetown University student was released Tuesday after DNA evidence showed he was innocent. Upon setting him free, authorities handed Donald E. Gates a bus ticket, winter clothes and $75. D.C. Superior Court Judge Fred Ugast, who presided over the now 58-year-old's trial, threw out Gates' conviction Tuesday morning. He was released hours later from a prison in Tucson, Ariz. http://www.corrections.com/news/article/23036-man-freed-after-28-years-in-prison
12/18/09 WASHINGTON -Investigators at the U.S. Justice Department are being asked to look into the case of a man freed from prison this week after 28 years because DNA tests showed he was innocent. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20091218/ap_on_re_us/us_wrong_man_convicted
Ja Fla. man exonerated after 35 years behind bars: 12/17/09 BARTOW, Fla. James Bain made his first-ever cell phone call Thursday, dialing his elderly mother to tell her he had been freed after 35 years behind bars for a crime he did not commit. http://www.worldphoto360.com/fla-man-exonerated-after-35-years-behind-bars/
Geronimo Pratt: J. Edgar Hoover considered him a potential messiah for Black people, however the police force feared him as one of the biggest threats to national security. He was framed by the FBI's infamous COINTELPRO and imprisoned for the murder of schoolteacher Caroline Olsen that occurred on a Santa Monica tennis court. Geronimo maintained that he was at a national Black Panther Party meeting in Oakland seven hours away and that FBI agents and police hid and possibly destroyed wiretap evidence that would prove it. http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=944970\\
On June 10, 1997, Judge Dickey ordered Pratt to be released on $25,000 bail. He had spent 27 years behind bars. Pratt was released in time to watch his son, Hiroji, go through his eighth-grade graduation ceremony. Later, he returned to Louisiana to see his 94-year-old mother, Eunice Petty Pratt, whom he had not seen since 1974. Pratt's stood completely vindicated when in 2000 the city of Los Angeles agreed to pay $2.75 million and the U.S. Department of Justice $1.75 million to settle a lawsuit for false imprisonment and violations of his civil rights. http://www.answers.com/topic/geronimo-pratt
Jimmy Lee Jackson, 'Gave his life in the struggle for the right to vote. http://www.annistonstar.com/opinion/2005/as-insight-0306-jflemingcol-5c04q1447.htm ' (Murdered) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18574158/from/ET/
Ex-state trooper surrenders in 1965 Ala. slaying trial in '65 shooting (Jimmie Lee Jackson)- 7/13/08 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25624385/from/ET/
Sat May 8, 2010 - 45-year-old civil rights slaying still unresolved - MONTGOMERY, Ala. – It took more than four decades for a former Alabama state trooper to be indicted on charges that he gunned down a black demonstrator — a killing that helped galvanize the civil rights movement. Now a three-year delay for the trial has both sides fearing that elderly witnesses could die before they get a chance to testify. A federal grand jury in Mobile reviewed the shooting shortly after it occurred and brought no charges. Michael Jackson reopened the investigation after he became Perry County's first black district attorney in 2005. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100508/ap_on_re_us/us_civil_rights_slaying
Medgar Evers was killed On June 12, 1963, as he was returning home, by an assassin’s bullet. Black and white leaders from around the nation came to Jackson for his funeral and then gathered at Arlington National Cemetery for his interment. Following his death, his brother, Charles, took over Medgar’s position as state field secretary for the NAACP. The accused killer, a white supremacist named Byron De La Beckwith, stood trial twice in the 1960s, but in both cases the all-white juries could not reach a verdict. Finally, in a third trial in 1994 (and thirty-one years after Evers’ murder), Beckwith was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/english/ms-writers/dir/evers_medgar/
12/15/09 DNA Evidence Clears Ga Man in 2007 Crime: ATLANTA (MyFOX ATLANTA) - A man who spent two years in jail for a crime he did not commit is now a free man. DNA evidence proved 43-year-old Michael Marshall's innocence http://www.myfoxatlanta.com/dpp/news/dna_evidence_clears_ga_man_in_2007_crime_121509
12/08/09 NEW YORK A New Jersey woman whose false story about a gang rape sent an innocent man to prison has pleaded guilty to perjury. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20091208/ap_on_re_us/us_gang_rape_recanted
.10/27/09 - Exonerated after 14 years, inmate and his fiancée start life together at last http://www.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/10/27/chicago.love.innocence.2/index.html
.10/21/09 CHARLESTON, W.Va. - Megan Williams' shocking accusations initially strained the imagination: Seven white people beat her with sticks, forced her to eat feces, raped her and taunted her with racial slurs over several days in a ramshackle trailer in West Virginia. - An attorney for a black woman who claimed torture by a white group in West Virginia says his client fabricated the story to get back at a boyfriend who had beaten her up. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/33414600/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/from/ET
10/21/09 - Wrongfully convicted Boston man awarded $14M - BOSTON: A federal jury has awarded $14 million to a man who spent nearly 15 years in prison after he was wrongly convicted in the 1988 slaying of a 12-year-old Boston girl. http://blog.taragana.com/law/2009/10/21/man-wrongfully-convicted-in-boston-girls-1988-killing-awarded-14-million-in-lawsuit-14890/
. 9/10/09 DNA Testing Once Again Clears Wrongly Imprisoned Man (26 years) Mentally retarded suspect was coerced into confession... http://wrongful-convictions.blogspot.com/2009/09/dna-testing-once-again-clears-wrongly.html
Photograph of the 3 Duluth lynching victims http://shop.mnhs.org/pages.cfm?ID=36
On June 15, 1920, police arrest several young black men accused of raping a white woman. That evening, three of them – Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie – are taken from jail by a mob and lynched. The Circus Comes to Town…It was the John Robinson Circus that brought Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie to Duluth. They and other young black men were employed by the circus as cooks and “roustabouts,” laborers who performed a variety of physical tasks. Traveling by train, the circus was greeted by an eager crowd upon arrival in Duluth. They were in town for a free street parade and one day of performances on June 14, 1920. Accusations On the warm summer night of June 14, Irene Tusken, age nineteen, and James Sullivan, eighteen, went to the circus in Duluth. At the end of the evening the pair walked to the rear of the main tent. Nobody is sure of what happened next, but in the early morning of June 15th, Duluth Police Chief John Murphy received a call from James Sullivan’s father saying six black circus workers had held the pair at gunpoint and then raped Irene Tusken. Little evidence would be found to corroborate these claims. An examination of Tusken that morning by Dr. David Graham, a family physician, showed no physical signs of rape or assault. http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_24.html
9/10/09 MILWAUKEE A man who served 13 years in prison before his homicide conviction was overturned sued the city of Milwaukee and its police department Thursday, days after authorities arrested a man whose DNA they say links him to the killing. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090910/ap_on_re_us/us_serial_killings_milwaukee
.8/20/09 A Virginia man who spent 22 years in prison for two rapes he did not commit will get more than $632,000 in restitution, following a unanimous decision Wednesday by state lawmakers. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32483798/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/from/ET
.8/17/09 Supreme Court grants Georgia death row inmate appeal: The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday granted an appeal by a man sentenced to death in Georgia for the murder of a policeman, ruling he should get a hearing to assess what he says is new evidence showing his innocence. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20090817/us_nm/us_usa_crime_georgia
6/18/09 The U.S. Supreme Court says convicts have no constitutional right to test DNA evidence in hopes of proving their innocence long after they were found guilty of a crime. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31426030/from/ET/
6/15/09...N.J. man to be freed after '87 convictions: A federal judge in Newark, N.J., has cleared the way for a man convicted of two murders more than two decades ago to be freed from prison.
5/23/09 Ill. An inmate who claimed police tortured him into confessing to two murders he didn't commit was granted a new trial Friday after 18 years behind bars.
May 06, 2009 Gov. Sonny Perdue has approved a $500,000 payout for a Georgia man who spent almost three decades in prison before DNA tests cleared him of rape. http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Perdur%20approves%20500K.pdf
.5/13/09 Paul House, 47, spent 22 years on Tennessee death row for the rape and murder of his neighbor, Carolyn Muncey, in 1985. He left prison last year and was placed under house arrest after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that new DNA evidence could have led a jury to acquit him. He was scheduled to be retried next month when Union County District Attorney Paul Phillips announced Tuesday that he filed a petition to drop all charges against House. http://www.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/05/13/tennessee.exonerated/index.html?iref=mpstoryview
.4/2/09 DNA clears Conn. man jailed for 20 years: The Innocence Project, which is looking at more than 100 convictions in Connecticut, has access to more sophisticated DNA testing than was available in the late 1980s and early 1990s. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30015522/
.4/2/09 Testing has again failed to find DNA from a man who spent more than two decades on Tennessee's death row on evidence that will be used to retry him for a woman's murder, a lab report shows. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29995765/from/ET/
.3/30/09 Wisconsin man faces murder charge in 1980 killing (see below) http://my.att.net/s/editorial.dll?eeid=6473459&eetype=article&render=y&ck=.
3/27/09 Husband of slain Wis. woman vindicated, angry after 28 years http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2009Mar27/0,4670,ExhumedVictimArrest,00.html
.3/18/09 UK man has murder conviction overturned Published http://my.att.net/s/editorial.dll?eeid=6456361&eetype=article&render=y&ck=
.3/1/09 High court looks at prisoners' right to DNA test: According to The Innocence Project, which is affiliated with Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, Alaska is the only state where there is no known case of a prisoner receiving DNA testing after being convicted. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090228/ap_on_re_us/alaska_dna_test
.2/24/09 A judge in New York has dismissed all charges against a man who spent 11 years in prison for a murder he did not commit. http://www.courtnewsreport.com/archives/008269.html
.Missouri man convicted of '92 slaying released: 2/18/09 http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090219/ap_on_re_us/prosecutor_criticized .
Small-town sheriff helps Mo. inmate (see above) win freedom: 2/20/09 The state's prosecution was based on the testimony of another suspect in Lawless' death who said he saw Kezer at a nearby convenience store on the night of the killing. But he gave conflicting testimony and three jail inmates who claimed Kezer had confessed to the killing later acknowledged lying in hopes of getting reduced sentences. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090220/ap_on_re_us/prosecutor_criticized
Fire In A Canebrake: (Monroe Lynching) The Last Mass Lynching in America…By Laura Waxler http://www.laurawexler.com/html/photos.html
Ex-Georgia Governor, Eugene Talmadge Was Suspected in 1946 Lynchings: June 16, 2007 Eventually, the FBI identified 55 possible suspects, including George Hester, but no one was ever arrested. After a federal grand jury in December 1946 could not identify any members of the mob, the FBI retreated from the case. http://www.theledger.com/article/20070616/NEWS/706160433/-1/LIFE0201
Coroner W.T. Brown on July 26, 1946, places a sheet over the body of one of the four African Americans lynched... Roger and Dorothy Malcom, and George and Mae Murray Dorsey.
Georgia Gov. Eugene Talmadge attends a Democratic National Committee meeting in Washington, D.C., on Jan. 9, 1936.
FBI, GBI To Discuss Monroe Lynching: March 28, 2009
Supreme Court says: Wrongfully convicted, man can't sue prosecutor http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090126/ap_on_go_su_co/scotus_wrongful_conviction
.Man freed 23 years after wrongful conviction: 1/31/09 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28938985/from/ET/
Conviction reversed in 30-year-old death row case: .1/15/09 http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090113/ap_on_re_us/texas_execution_appeal
.Man imprisoned for 20 years gets new trial: 12/20/08
Man's murder, rape convictions overturned After 19 years: 11/26/08 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27913195/from/ET/
Exonerated inmates often don't have state help: 11/18/08
Innocent Mo. man freed after 24 years files suit: 11/18/08 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Innocent%20Man.pdf
\Man cleared of murder after 10 years in prison: 10/28/08
Lynching of African American male. 1960, McDuffie County, Georgia. Early one morning in the 1960s, two young boys bicycling to a favorite fishing hole happened upon this scene: a county prison farm trustee's dead weight hanging by the neck in a thorny bramble of Georgia hardwoods. After they reported it to the local authorities, the Georgia Bureau of Investigation's chief looked briefly at the scene and declared, "Suicide." This photograph was snapped, and the investigation was closed. http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_17.html
Execution delayed for convict in '89 Ga. killing: 10/24/08
wrongly convicted World War II vet's family gets $28,000 in back pay:10/23/08 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27347652/from/ET/
Ex-Chicago cop charged with lying about torture: 10/21/08 http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/2008/10/21/2008-10-21_exchicago_cop_charged_with_lying_about_t-2.html
Officials say Fingerprint errors led to false arrests; 1 fired, 3 suspended: 10/19/08
.Smyrna man jailed 2 years before acquittal: 10/08/08 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/2%20years%20before%20acquittal.pdf
Wrongly convicted man cleared after tests on stolen smoke reveal DNA link: 8/19/08 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26285667/from/ET/
.DNA test frees convicted Ohio child rapist: 8/12/08
Man whose conviction was overturned still fighting: 8/22/10 LEE'S SUMMIT, Mo. – After Ted White Jr. was wrongfully convicted of molesting his 12-year-old stepdaughter, his parents poured everything they had into clearing their son's name. When he won his freedom after finding out that the detective who led the sex-abuse investigation was his estranged wife's secret lover, White wanted someone to pay — to pay the legal bills and to pay for what he went through during his nearly six years behind bars. In 2008, a federal jury determined that McKinley and White's wife had conspired to send White to prison on false charges. The jury awarded White $14 million in assessed damages and $1 million each from Tina and Richard McKinley in punitive damages. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100822/ap_on_re_us/us_conviction_overturned_lawsuit
.Race sometimes a problem in eyewitness IDs: 8/11/08http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26123421/from/ET/
.JULY 30, 2008: WRONGLY-CONVICTED WWII VET DIES AFTER APOLOGY http://www.jackhamann.com/features/ny_times_Wrongly_convicted_WWII_vet_dies_after_apology.html?ex=1217995200&en=e22ab686a3cf6cd9&ei=5070
.7/9/08 A Hyde Park man who was wrongly convicted of molesting a 6-year-old girl has filed a lawsuit against the state, seeking compensation for the 10 years he spent behind bars. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2008/07/09/wrongly_convicted_man_seeks_compensation/
The lynching of Lee Hall, his body hung from a tree, bullet hole in head, ears cut off, discarded cookstove and trash. February 7, 1903, Wrightsville, Georgia...Lynching was live theatre. The executioners of one African American staged the lynching in a theatre and charged admission. One nickel bought you a seat and a shot at the victim. Journalists and newspaper publishers acted as press agents for these events-hyping, scripting, and advertising. Lynchings also sold newspapers. After the "opening" they reviewed the performance. A journalist in Wrightsville reported the lynching of Lee Hall for the Sandersville Progress: "It seems that the lynchers made a complete failure to remove his handcuffs and the negro is now hanging to the tree handcuffed. The lynchers used a small rope, tying the rope under his arms and throwing the rope over a limb of the tree. They did not even hang him up. He was found this morning with his feet on the ground in an apparently standing position with his head thrown back . . . completely riddled with bullets and his ears severed." http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_70.html
October 11, 2011 FRONTLINE, ProPublica and McClatchy investigate the country’s most notorious act of bioterrorism - Anthrax http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/anthrax-files/
Anthrax suspect's colleague blames FBI for suicide: 7/04/08
After the suicide last week of Bruce Ivins, the FBI’s prime suspect in the 2001 anthrax mailings that killed five people and had a nation fearing to open its mail, a friend and former colleague of the microbiologist says federal investigators were going after the wrong person and that it was their pressure on Ivins that led to his demise at his own hands.
“It’s possible somebody could hide that from all of your co-workers and nobody would ever hear about it,” Dr. Russell Byrne acknowledged to TODAY co-host Meredith Vieira on Monday. “But I really, really doubt it.”
Byrne, an infectious-disease specialist who worked as a research scientist at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases from 1993 to 2000, described himself as a friend of Ivins for 15 years. They attended the same Roman Catholic church in Frederick, Md., where Ivins was a member of the church band. After viewing a pre-interview report about the FBI’s investigation of Ivins, Byrne appeared so visibly shaken that Vieira commented on it. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26007186/from/ET/
Ex-Army scientist to get $5.8M in anthrax lawsuit - 6/27/08
.Integrity unit' created for Texas justice issues: 6/4/08 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/Texas%20Justice.pdf
.DNA clears man of rape after 12 years in prison : 5/29/08
.Man Exonerated After Spending 40 Days In Prison On Murder Charges : 5/29/08
Man who claims innocence freed after 26 years: 4/19/08
DNA Testing Exonerates Jailed Man, Detroit: 4/14/2008
1.2M to man wrongly imprisoned: 04/02/08 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/AJC%201.2%20mil.pdf
.Inmate Freed After 14 Years on Death Row: 4/2/08 http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/2669008/
.FBI Money Sought After Revenge Killings: 3/10/08 http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-03-10-4059393439_x.htm
.A rogue FBI agent has been jailed for 40 years for killing a witness who was about to testify against the Mob. 16 Jan. 2009 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1119702/Rogue-FBI-agent-inspired-The-Departed-jailed-40-years-killing-witness-set-testify-Mob.html
Georgia Supreme Court throws out man's drug conviction 2/26/08
1936 lynching of Lint Shaw in Royston, Georgia -- Georgia Lynching’s - Between 1882 and 1930 the American South experienced an epidemic of fatal mob violence that produced more than 3,000 victims, the vast majority of whom were African Americans. More than 450 documented lynchings occurred in Georgia alone. Lynching refers to the illegal killing of a person by a group of others. It does not refer to the method of killing. Lynching victims were murdered by being hanged, shot, burned, drowned, dismembered, or dragged to death. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2717
New Suspect Charged in 1992 Miss. Murder 2/8/08 http://www.att.net/s/editorial.dll?eeid=5683484&eetype=article&render=y&ck=
January 15, 2008 Man wrongly imprisoned for 26 years gains his freedom MANY, La. - Rickey Johnson, who has been incarcerated for nearly 26 years for a rape he did not commit, was released Monday based on DNA results proving his innocence, according to the Innocence Project, which represents him. http://www.bastropenterprise.com/state_news/x469075972
D.A. filed a motion to dismiss murder charges against Tim Masters: 1/25/08 http://www.denverpost.com/ci_8079134
Wrongly accused at 17, Tankleff starts over at 36: 1/06/08 http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/t/martin_tankleff/index.html?inline=nyt-per
.Fla. Man In Jail Nearly 28 Years Gets New Trial 1/17/2008 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27740886/
.Wrongly Convicted? Man convicted of killing parents is freed on bail: 12/28/07
James Weldon Johnson named the summer of 1919 the "Red Summer" for the rash of deadly riots which erupted in more than twenty-five American cities between April and October of that year. Racial tensions were at an extreme in Omaha that summer; the influx of African Americans from the South and a perceived epidemic of crime created an atmosphere of mistrust and fear that led to the lynching of William Brown.
The rampaging mob set the courthouse prison on fire and seized Brown. He was hung from a lamppost, mutilated, and his body riddled with bullets, then burned. Four other people were killed and fifty wounded before troops were able to restore order.This photograph was acquired from a Lincoln, Nebraska, man whose grandfather purchased it for two dollars as a souvenir while visiting Omaha in 1919. http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_80.html
.Lawsuite Filed in Wrongful Conviction; DNA Cleared Man in Prison for 10 years
DNA test frees man who served 30 years: 12/11/07 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/DNA%2030%20years.pdf
.man who remained in prison for 18 years after being wrongly convicted of child rape: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20484856/
.Hard lives for wives of men wrongly imprisoned: 08/17/07 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20305912/from/ET/
.Government fined $101 million over convictions (July 27, 2007) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15012096/from/ET/
.Wrongful conviction draws lawsuit against U.S. (Nov 16, 2006) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15757471/from/ET/
.1989 DEATH-PENALTY CASE: New questions cast doubt on conviction. 08/05/07 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/1989%20death%20penalty.pdf
August 10, 2007 A Scotsman who has been on death row in the US for more than 20 years has had his death sentence overturned on appeal. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Sky-News-Archive/Article/20080641279487
.Ex-death row inmate granted 'absolute pardon' http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19635849/from/ET/
.Report blames wrongful conviction on 'tunnel vision' of police, lawyers 7/3/07 http://georgehigh.com/George%20News/WRONGFUL%20CONVICTION%20Tunnell%20Vision.pdf
.Man Jailed on Cop's Word Freed: 6/23/07 In the first of what is expected to be many, a Fulton County man convicted on testimony from one of the same officers charged with killing 92-year-old Kathryn Johnston in a botched drug raid, was set free on Friday. http://www.11alive.com/news/article_news.aspx?storyid=99068 http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,284077,00.html
.Duke, Lacrosse Players Reach Settlement FOX News Straight Talk: Duke Case Shows Justice System's Flaws http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,284077,00.html
.Man to get $5 million for wrongful conviction 5/17/07 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18715007/
.(May 15, 2007) DNA test frees man convicted of 2 child slayings
.After 11 Years in Prison - including 16 on Death Row - Curtis McCarty is Exonerated http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,269308,00.html
.Jury Convicts Los Angeles Serial Killer for Murder of 10 Women, Including Fetus Monday, April 30, 2007: Before police identified Turner as a suspect, a mentally disabled janitor was wrongly convicted of three other slayings police believe are connected to Turner. Turner has not been charged with those murders. David Allen Jones, 44, was released in 2004, after 11 years in prison. He received $720,000 in compensation. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,269308,00.html
.(4/28/07) Third man in 1988 slaying is officially free http://georgehigh.com/email%20and%20letters/third%20man%20freed.pdf
Justice Deferred, Not Denied -- DNA Proof Clears 200th Victim of Wrongful Rape Conviction: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/530.php
Man exonerated by DNA is freed after 24 years: 1/26/06 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10995872/from/ET/ .
DNA evidence exonerates mentally ill man http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17842849/from/ET/ .
Ex-inmate near execution awarded $14 million http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17075302/from/ET/
.DNA frees N.Y., Ga. men from prison http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16773884/from/ET/
Arrest made in wrong conviction rape. Man freed had served 21 years http://georgehigh.com/gh/right%20arrest%2021.pdf .
Man gets $4 million over wrong rape conviction http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16792320/from/ET/ .
A Chicago judge agreed Thursday to release a man serving a 20-year sentence for a 1992 rape that DNA tests showed he didn't commit. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15979010/from/ET/
Nelson Mandela spent 27 years as a political prisoner in South Africa before becoming the country's first black president. Mandela was a leading member of the African National Congress (ANC), which opposed South Africa's white minority government and its policy of racial separation, known as apartheid. The government outlawed the ANC in 1960. Mandela was captured and jailed in 1962, and in 1964 he was convicted of treason and sentenced to life in prison. Instead of disappearing from view, Mandela became a prison-bound martyr and worldwide symbol of resistance to racism. South African President F.W. de Klerk finally lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela in 1990. Mandela used his stature to help dismantle apartheid and form a new multi-racial democracy, and he and de Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Mandela was elected the country's president in 1994. He served until 1999, when he was succeeded by his deputy Thabo Mbeki. Mandela's autobiography Long Walk to Freedom was published in 1994. http://www.answers.com/topic/nelson-mandela
JOHANNESBURG - June 21, 2011 - First lady Michelle Obama and her family paid their respects Tuesday to Nelson Mandela during a private visit at the home of the former South African president and revered statesman. It was the first meeting, and likely a moving one, between America's first black first lady and the political prisoner who later became his country's first elected black president. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/43478514/ns/today-today_people/
The system is broken and its up to the White House and the White Folks to fix it because they broke it. Since 1973, 123 innocent death row Inmates have been exonerated and set free. The convictions of 192 people across the country have been overturned by DNA tests since 1989. DNA evidence has cleared only a small percentage of those who have been wrongly convicted and they remain incarcerated. Page 240 Disfranchised http://georgehigh.com/gh/the%20system%20is%20broken.pdf
Wrongful Conviction Websites
Don’t Quit http://georgehigh.com/gh/Don%27t%20Quit.pdf
Center on Wrongful Convictions: The staff of the Center on Wrongful Convictions pioneered the investigation and litigation of wrongful convictions - including the cases of eleven innocent men sentenced to death in Illinois. These efforts were a driving force behind both Governor George H. Ryan's decision to suspend executions in Illinois and the current nationwide movement to reform the criminal justice system. http://www.law.northwestern.edu/wrongfulconvictions/
Justice Denied: The only magazine in the country devoted to profiling stories of the wrongfully convicted Justice Denied is invaluable at increasing awareness of the wrong done in this country in the name of justice http://www.justicedenied.org/
Wrongful Conviction and Innocence Resources on the Internet: Many people have been falsely accused and wrongly convicted in our criminal justice system.This bibliography focuses on the key websites and resources concerning this important issue. http://www.llrx.com/features/wrongfulconviction.htm#case%20profiles
America's Wrongfully Convicted ...This site is dedicated to those individuals, who, because of the selfish reasons of others who conspired for their false imprisonment resulting in malicious prosecution, judicial injustice and impropriety, prosecution for the sake of prosecution, lack of funds for legal aid to prove their innocence and/or other errors of one kind or another, have been wrongfully accused and wrongfully convicted of a crime which they did not commit and have been left to languish resulting in loss of liberty, civil rights, productive lifestyle, financial and personal ruin, mental anguish, social condemnation and personal and family embarrassment for the remainder of their lives. http://www.americaswrongfullyconvicted.com/
The Georgia Innocence Project: Innocent people are serving a significant portion of their lives in prison for crimes they did not commit. These innocent people need someone to care about justice and to assist them in gaining their freedom. http://www.ga-innocenceproject.org/
Welcome to INNOCENT! a Christian-based non-profit organization, refers prison inmates and their families to a national network of Innocence organizations following receipt and review of claims of wrongful conviction. Utilizing expertise in the media and in community organization, INNOCENT increases public awareness of legitimate claims of innocence and problems associated with wrongful convictions. http://www.aboutinnocent.org
Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty (CUADP): If you are familiar with the Sheppard /murder case, you know that it is not difficult to get railroaded in the United States. We as a people, and the media in particular, have a responsibility to the public to expose wrongful convictions. http://www.cuadp.org/pris/pot.html
Amnesty International is a global movement of people fighting injustice and promoting human rights. We work to protect people wherever justice, freedom, truth and dignity are denied. Currently the world’s largest grassroots human rights organization, we investigate and expose abuses, educate and mobilize the public, and help transform societies to create a safer, more just world. We received the Nobel Peace Prize for our life-saving work. http://www.amnestyusa.org/our-work
The Wrongful Convictions Project: Mission and Purpose: The Wrongful Convictions Project is dedicated to identifying and rectifying wrongful convictions and other serious miscarriages of justice. http://www.wrongfulconvictions.com/
MID-ALANTIC INNOCENCE PROJECT D.C. attorneys seeking the exoneration of persons who have been convicted of crimes that they did not commit. Contains facts about wrongful convictions, sources of conviction error, public opinion, and related news. http://www.exonerate.org/facts/
Truth in Justice is an educational non-profit organized to educate the public regarding the vulnerabilities in the U. S. criminal justice system that make the criminal conviction of wholly innocent persons possible. http://www.truthinjustice.org/.
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GENESIS 15:13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not their's, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; 15:14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. The first Africans in America arrived via Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. 1619-2012 = 393 Years...