Black Lives Matter Too, And We Are Gonna Hold The Powerful Accountable: Equal Justice Under Law” is chiseled in Stone on the front of the U.S. Supreme Court building. All men are created equal is one of the most important doctrines that our founders espoused. It means that no one is above the law. Kings are not above the law, groups are not above the law, no individual is above the law but there is “equal justice under law.” http://agentgenius.com/g-rants-insanity-more/equal-justice-under-law/
Slaves were stripped of their beautiful and important/proud African names, either on the ship-journey -- or by new plantation/slave owners in the South... and given new, patriotic-US-white names. .
What It’s Like to Be a Black Undocumented Immigrant in America ?
The first Africans in America arrived via Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. From 1619 to about 1640, Africans could earn their freedom working as laborers and artisans for the European settlers. Africans could become free people and enjoy some of the liberties like other new settlers. By 1640, Maryland became the first colony to institutionalize slavery. In 1641, Massachusetts, in its written legislative Body of Liberties, stated that "bondage was legal" servitude, at that moment changing the conditions of the African workers - they became chattel slaves who could be bought and solely owned by their masters. http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/aaslavry.htm#intro
WILLIE LYNCH - - The Making Of A Slave: This speech was delivered by Willie Lynch on the bank of the James River in the colony of Virginia in 1712. Lynch was a British slave owner in the West Indies. He was invited to the colony of Virginia in 1712 to teach his methods to slave owners there. The term "lynching" is derived from his last name. http://thetalkingdrum.com/wil.html
Re-Writing History from a "Black" prospective ...The Holy Grail, The "Sacred Cow" and The Goose that laid the Golden Egg
An alter ego (Latin, "the other I") is a second self, which is believed to be distinct from a person's normal or original personality. The term was coined in the early nineteenth century when dissociative identity disorder was first described by psychologists. A person with an alter ego is said to lead a double life. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alter_ego
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde - 1886 - The work is commonly associated with the rare mental condition often spuriously called "split personality", wherein within the same person there are at least two distinct personalities. In this case, the two personalities in Dr Jekyll are apparently good and evil, with completely opposite levels of morality. However, some readers have argued that the "dual personalities" interpretation is overly-simplistic. Jekyll himself notes that a person may be divided into many more than two distinct personalities--he expects that researchers in the future will discover that a person is made up of many different selves… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange_Case_of_Dr_Jekyll_and_Mr_Hyde
THIS IS HOW Y’ALL’S ANCESTORS BROUGHT US TO AMERICA
The first African Slaves were imported into the American South in 1619, by the Dutch Traders. These Slaves - who were in agricultural-labour tribes -- Were taken by force from their native Africa, and sailed across the ocean, along a sea route known as 'the Middle Passage'... Hundreds of black slaves were cramped into the large ships, and endured hideous conditions at sea. Life on the ocean was hard and grim for the kidnapped African's, who were sandwhiched together in their sleeping-area, like sardines... The journey took 3-5 weeks, and as disease was high and nutrition/health was low, many did not survive the journey.
The captains and sailors of the boats were allowed to do whatever they wanted with the slaves. This included rape, murder, and torture because the slaves were considered their property. As many as 20 million Africans were transported by ship. The transportation of slaves from Africa to America was known as the Middle Passage . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_ship
AND, THIS IS HOW Y’ALL’S ANCESTORS CAME TO AMERICA
Immigration to the United States - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Immigration to the United States is a complex demographic phenomenon that has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior. On a per capita basis, the United States lets in fewer immigrants than half the countries in the OECD. Prior to 1965, the national origins formula restricted immigration to the peoples of Western Europe. Historically, immigration and naturalization has been limited to members of the white race.
When Ellis Island opened, a great change was taking place in immigration to the United States. As arrivals from northern and western Europe–Germany, Ireland, Britain and the Scandinavian countries–slowed, more and more immigrants poured in from southern and eastern Europe. Among this new generation were Jews escaping from political and economic oppression in czarist Russia and eastern Europe (some 484,000 arrived in 1910 alone) and Italians escaping poverty in their country. There were also Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Serbs, Slovaks and Greeks, along with non-Europeans from Syria, Turkey and Armenia. The reasons they left their homes in the Old World included war, drought, famine and religious persecution, and all had hopes for greater opportunity in the New World. http://www.history.com/topics/ellis-island
Buying a Slave in Pennsylvania - Introduction - The year 1684 saw the first commercial sale of slaves in Pennsylvania as the British merchant ship Isabella landed at Philadelphia with a cargo that included 150 African slaves. They were immediately purchased by the local Quaker settlers, who were in need of manpower to help clear the land in the three year-old colony. Slave imports after that year were small in number until the 1730's, when a decrease in the duty levied upon imported slaves, combined with a laxity on the part of the provincial collector to collect any imposts at all between 1731 and 1761, combined to allow a surge in the number of slaves brought into the colony by slave merchants. The imports leveled off again, probably due to a preference by buyers for European indentured servants and redemptioners, until the start of the Seven Years' War. http://www.afrolumens.org/slavery/buying.html
Heading for Jamaica in 1781, the ship Zong was nearing the end of its voyage. It had been twelve weeks since it had sailed from the west African coast with its cargo of 417 slaves. Water was running out. Then, compounding the problem, there was an outbreak of disease. The ship's captain, reasoning that the slaves were going to die anyway, made a decision. In order to reduce the owner's losses he would throw overboard the slaves thought to be too sick to recover. The voyage was insured, but the insurance would not pay for sick slaves or even those killed by illness. However, it would cover slaves lost through drowning.
The captain gave the order; 54 Africans were chained together, then thrown overboard. Another 78 were drowned over the next two days. By the time the ship had reached the Caribbean,132 persons had been murdered.
When the ship returned to England the owners made their claim -- they wished to be compensated the full value for each slave lost. The claim might have been honored had if it had not been for former slave Equiano, then living in England, who learned of the tragedy and alerted an abolitionist friend of his. The case went to court. At first the jury ruled in favor of the ship's owners. Since it was permissible to kill animals for the safety of the ship, they decided, it was permissible to kill slaves for the same reason. The insurance company appealed, and the case was retried. This time the court decided that the Africans on board the ship were people. It was a landmark decision.
On another voyage, on another ship, a similar incident occurred. On La Rodeur in 1812, there was an outbreak of ophthalmia, a disease that causes temporary blindness. Both slaves and crew were afflicted. The captain, fearing that the blindness was permanent and knowing that blind slaves would be difficult if not impossible to sell, sent 39 slaves over the rails to their watery death. As with the captain of the Zong, he hoped that the insurance would cover the loss. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1h280.html
In Congress, July 4, 1776 The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America: When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed...
Slave Sales and Auctions African Coast and the Americas/Slave Auction, Richmond, Virginia, 1862.jpg http://negroartist.com /Slave%20Sales%20and%20Auctions%20African%20Coast%20and%20the%20Americas/index.htm
In June, 1863, in the midst of the Civil War, the union hatched a bold plan to raid the Combahee Ferry area in South Carolina. Under the overall command of Colonel Montgomery, several hundred black soldiers (led by white officers) would board three US Navy ships. These ships would then travel a dangerous course inland, deep into Confederate territories.
The area had been mapped out and reconnoitered by a Union spy. Because of these efforts the area was known to have an abundance of supplies and food needed for the south’s war efforts, along with a variety of plantations and their accompanying slaves. This spy would participate in the mission should any additional information be needed.
Travelling by night, one ship was put out of commission. Yet the other two continued on and, near dawn, combat actions began. The spy, not the type of person to sit idle as a spectator, took control of a small group and led them into battle. As cannon fire erupted from the ships and shots were fired from both sides, the Union forces created havoc and were rewarded with a stunning victory.
A bridge was wrecked. Surprised Confederate troops were forced to flee. Several plantations and their important crops were completely destroyed. A horde of rice along with a variety farm animals were confiscated for the use of northern troops. But most important, over 700 slaves were freed, boarded and brought back to Union lines where many of them were formed into military units. Not one Union death was reported.
Just another exciting chapter in a large book of Civil War battles? Perhaps. Except that the northern spy who helped lead the Union forces was a woman. The first American woman to lead a raid during the Civil War. More, she was a black woman. A black woman and former slave named Harriet Tubman.
Tubman was less used to travelling by ship than she was by railroad – Underground Railroad. Prior to the Civil War she’d personally helped to free hundreds of black men, women and children from the grip of southern slavery. Those talents she’d used to free slaves came to use again during the war, as a spy
The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War under his war powers. It proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation
Sherman's Field Order No. 15 - On January 16, 1865, during the Civil War (1861-65), Union general
William T. Sherman issued his Special Field Order No. 15, which confiscated as Union property a strip of coastline stretching from Charleston, South Carolina, to the St. John's River in Florida, including Georgia's Sea Islands and the mainland thirty miles in from the coast. The order redistributed the roughly 400,000 acres of land to newly freed black families in forty-acre segments.
On January 12 Sherman and Stanton met with twenty black leaders of the Savannah community, mostly Baptist and Methodist ministers, to discuss the question of emancipation. Lincoln approved Field Order No. 15 before Sherman issued it just four days after meeting with the black leaders.
The order explicitly called for the settlement of black families on confiscated land, encouraged freedmen to join the Union army to help sustain their newly won liberty, and designated a general officer to act as inspector of settlements. Inspector General Rufus Saxton would police the land and work to ensure legal title of the property for the black settlers. In a later order, Sherman also authorized the army to loan mules to the newly settled farmers.
But the order was a short-lived promise for blacks. Despite the objections of General Oliver O. Howard, the Freedmen's Bureau chief, U.S. president Andrew Johnson overturned Sherman's directive in the fall of 1865, after the war had ended, and returned the land along the South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida coasts to the planters who had originally owned it. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-3353
A Capital Under Slavery’s Shadow - Alexandria, Va., Feb. 25, 1861 - Shackled slaves marching past the Capitol on their way to market, 1836.Newspapers announced that the sale would take place in one week’s time: on the very morning of Inauguration Day. At the precise hour that Abraham Lincoln rode down Pennsylvania Avenue to take his oath of office beneath the East Portico of the Capitol, a group of black people would stand beneath another columned portico just five miles away – at the Alexandria Courthouse. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/24/a-capital-under-slaverys-shadow/
Enslaved laborers toiled at the expansion of the Capitol. Enslaved body servants attended their masters on the floor of the Senate, in the Supreme Court chamber – and sometimes even in the White House. No fewer than 10 of the first 15 presidents were slaveholders: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James Polk and Zachary Taylor. (However, Washington never lived in Washington, D.C., and Van Buren and Harrison both freed their slaves long before taking office.)
Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: Case Closed? Within the last three years, the old story that Thomas Jefferson fathered several children by his slave Sally Hemings—a claim that most Jefferson scholars had earlier considered so implausible that nearly all of them rejected it without a truly rigorous investigation—has gained new credibility and extensive national publicity. In 1997, law professor Annette Gordon-Reed reviewed the evidence and concluded that the case for Jefferson's paternity was much stronger than scholars had supposed. In 1999, DNA tests proved compatible with the possibility that Jefferson had fathered Eston Hemings, Sally's youngest son. The DNA report (very misleadingly titled), a conference held at the University of Virginia, a volume of essays resulting from that conference, a forum in the William and Mary Quarterly, a bad movie, a dreadful TV miniseries, and a report by the staff of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, which manages Monticello—all accepting the likelihood of Jefferson's paternity—have publicized the accusation far and wide…. http://www.claremont.org/publications/crb/id.1015/article_detail.asp
The Will of George Washington - - Slave Lists : The list of Mount Vernon slaves which GW drew up, probably some time in June 1799, included those slaves owned by him outright, those who were controlled by him as part of Martha Washington’s dower, and a number who were rented by him in 1786 by contract with Mrs. Penelope French at the time he acquired her life rights to land she owned on Dogue Run. http://insomniacdiary.com/2013/03/19/the-will-of-george-washington-slave-lists/
Martha Washington - - It is impossible to understand Martha Washington without appreciating the importance of slavery in her life. In the Virginia society in which she lived, slaves provided the most crucial source of labor in the economy, a significant portion of a person’s wealth, and a visible symbol of a family’s social status. http://marthawashington.us/exhibits/show/martha-washington--a-life/the-1790s/slavery
Martin Van Buren (one)-
The earlier Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was a Federal law which was written with the intention of enforcing Article 4, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which required the return of runaway slaves. It sought to force the authorities in free states to return fugitive slaves to their masters.
Background - By 1843, several hundred slaves a year were successfully escaping to the North, making slavery an unstable institution in the border states.
The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers. This was one of the most controversial acts of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a 'slave power conspiracy'. It declared that all runaway slaves be brought back to their masters. Abolitionists nicknamed it the "Bloodhound Law" for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Law_of_1850
Aug 17, 2011 Obama: 'The buck stops with me' - President Obama says he inherited "a big mess" with the economy -- and Republicans aren't cooperating very much -- but he channeled Harry Truman by telling CNN that "ultimately the buck stops with me." "I'm going to be accountable," Obama said. " I think people understand that a lot of these problems were decades in the making. People understand that this financial crisis was the worst since the Great Depression. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/theoval/post/2011/08/obama-the-buck-stops-with-me/1
Speaking truth to power is perhaps the oldest and, certainly, one of the most difficult of ethical challenges because to do so entails personal danger. From the day humans descended from our ape-like ancestors until only very recently, tribal leaders, clan elders, kings, and just plain bosses were men who ruled by force. To question their decisions was to risk death. The truth that makes men free is for the most part the truth which men prefer not to hear. --Herbert Agar, A Time for Greatness (1942) http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/truth-to-power.html
I'm Just Like the Umpire...I Call it Like I See it and "Nobody Gets A Free Pass" and...We Vow to not leave a stone unturned and we gonna let the Chips Fall Where They May...
In 1838, at the age of twenty, Frederick Douglass escaped slavery and settled in the North. He quickly became involved in the campaign against slavery, known as the abolitionist movement. Seven years later in 1845, he published the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself, in which he told the story of his life under slavery. His moving account of slavery and his eventual escape lent a certain authenticity to Douglass' speeches and writings against institutionalized slavery that white abolitionists did not have. His use of vivid language in depicting violence against slaves, his psychological insights into the power dynamics between slaves and slaveholders, and his naming of specific persons and places made his book a powerful indictment against a society (both in the North and South of the United States) that continued to condone slavery as a viable social and economic institution. http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-frederickdouglass/intro.html
Frederick Douglass (1817?-1895), one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement, which fought to end slavery within the United States in the decades prior to the Civil War. In 1847 he began publishing an antislavery paper called the North Star. Douglass served as an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights and other civil liberties for blacks. Douglass provided a powerful voice for human rights during this period of American history and is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice. http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/douglass/home.html
When the Army ordered his master to go back to Missouri, he took Scott with him back to that slave state, where his master died. In 1846, Scott was helped by Abolitionist (anti-slavery) lawyers to sue for his freedom in court, claiming he should be free since he had lived on free soil for a long time. The case went all the way to the United States Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Roger B. Taney, was a former slave owner from Maryland.
In March of 1857, Scott lost the decision as seven out of nine Justices on the Supreme Court declared no slave or descendant of a slave could be a U.S. citizen, or ever had been a U.S. citizen. As a non-citizen, the court stated, Scott had no rights and could not sue in a Federal Court and must remain a slave.
At that time there were nearly 4 million slaves in America. The court's ruling affected the status of every enslaved and free African-American in the United States. The ruling served to turn back the clock concerning the rights of African-Americans, ignoring the fact that black men in five of the original States had been full voting citizens dating back to the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
Anti-slavery leaders in the North cited the controversial Supreme Court decision as evidence that Southerners wanted to extend slavery throughout the nation and ultimately rule the nation itself. Southerners approved the Dred Scott decision believing Congress had no right to prohibit slavery in the territories. Abraham Lincoln reacted with disgust to the ruling and was spurred into political action, publicly speaking out against it. Overall, the Dred Scott decision had the effect of widening the political and social gap between North and South and took the nation closer to the brink of Civil War. http://www.historyplace.com/lincoln/dred.htm
# Bring Back Our Girls
First lady Michelle Obama said Saturday that she and President Obama are "outraged and heartbroken" about the kidnapping of more than 200 Nigerian schoolgirls on Tuesday by an Islamist militant group.
The name of the terrorist group behind the kidnappings - Boko Haram - roughly translates to "western education is forbidden." The group has previously attacked schools in Nigeria to protest the education of women there. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/michelle-obama-outraged-and-heartbroken-over-nigerian-girls-kidnapping/
Alexander Hamilton Stephens, (1812 - 1883) Ga. vice president of the Confederacy: Cornerstone Speech March 21, 1861 Savannah, Georgia …The constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to the institution while it should last, and hence no argument can be justly urged against the constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the government built upon it fell when the "storm came and the wind blew." ...Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner- stone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth…Many governments have been founded upon the principle of the subordination and serfdom of certain classes of the same race; such were and are in violation of the laws of nature. Our system commits no such violation of nature's laws. "With us, all of the white race, however high or low, rich or poor, are equal in the eye of the law. Not so with the negro. Subordination is his place. He, by nature, or by the curse against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he occupies in our system. It is, indeed, in conformity with the ordinance of the Creator. It is not for us to inquire into the wisdom of His ordinances, or to question them. For His own purposes, He has made one race to differ from another, as He has made one star to differ from another star in glory. "The great objects of humanity are best attained when there is conformity to His laws and decrees, in the formation of governments as well as in all things else." http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?documentprint=76
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Education Quotes - - Quote #4 "Learning would spoil the best nigger in the world. Now," said he, "if you teach that nigger (speaking of myself) how to read, there would be no keeping him. It would forever unfit him to be a slave. He would at once become unmanageable, and of no value to his master. As to himself, it could do him no good, but a great deal of harm. It would make him discontented and unhappy." ... I now understood what had been to me a most perplexing difficulty--to wit, the white man's power to enslave the black man. http://www.shmoop.com/life-of-frederick-douglass/education-quotes-all.html
EDUCATION PROHIBITED The Slave not being regarded as a member of Society, nor as a human being, the Government, instead of providing for his education, takes care to forbid it, as being inconsistent with the condition of chattelhood. CHATTELS are not educated! And if human beings are to be held in chattelhood, education must be withheld from them. “In Georgia, by Act of 1829, no person is permitted to teach a slave, negro, or free person of color to read or write. So in Virginia, by statute, in 1830, meetings of free negroes to learn reading and writing are unlawful, and subject them to corporal punishment; and it is unlawful for white persons to assemble with free negroes or slaves, to teach them to read or write. The prohibitory Act of the Legislature of Alabama, passed in the session of 1831-2, relative to instruction to be given to the slave or free colored population, or exhortation or preaching to them, or any mischievous influence attempted to be exerted over them, is sufficiently penal. Laws of similar import are presumed to exist in the other slaveholding States; but in Louisiana, the law is armed with tenfold severity. It not only forbids any person teaching slaves to read or write, but it declares, that any person using language in any public discourse, from the bar, bench, stage, or pulpit, or in any other place, or in any private conversation, or making use of any signs or actions having a tendency to produce discontent among the free colored population, or insubordination among the slaves, or who shall be knowingly instrumental in bringing into the State any paper, book, or pamphlet, having the like tendency, shall, on conviction, be punished with imprisonment or death, at the discretion of the Court.” http://www.dinsdoc.com/goodell-1-2-6.htm
Still Separate, Still Unequal: America's Educational Apartheid
JONATHAN KOZOL / Harper's Magazine v.311, n.1864 1sep2005
The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell. Collection of the Norman Rockwell Museum at Stockbridge, Mass.
In Chicago, by the academic year 2002-2003, 87 percent of public-school enrollment was black or Hispanic; less than 10 percent of children in the schools were white. In Washington, D.C., 94 percent of children were black or Hispanic; less than 5 percent were white. In St. Louis, 82 percent of the student population were black or Hispanic; in Philadelphia and Cleveland, 79 percent; in Los Angeles, 84 percent, in Detroit, 96 percent; in Baltimore, 89 percent. In New York City, nearly three quarters of the students were black or Hispanic. http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2005/American-Apartheid-Education1sep05.htm
Chicago to Close 50 Public Schools While Spending $100 Million on Basketball Arena June 11, 2013 By Editor
Two months ago, the city of Chicago enraged progressives by unveiling plans to close over 50 schools, mostly in the poorest African-American areas, in order to make up for a budget shortfall caused by the Bush Recession and their bloated corporate welfare system. Adding insult to injury, the city has just announced that it plans to dedicate as much as $100 million in public funds to the privately funded Depaul University for the construction of their new basketball arena.
Yes, you’ve read that correctly: The city cares more about collegiate sports than they do about educating already-struggling African-American youth.
This is part of a mammoth redevelopment project consisting of a convention center anchored by an arena for a basketball team that has gone 47-111 over the last five years. It’s also miles away from DePaul’s campus. http://blackstarjournal.org/?p=2898
Chicago Board of Ed votes to close 50 schools: May 22, 2013 . CHICAGO (AP) — The Chicago Board of Education voted Wednesday to close 50 schools and programs, an ambitious plan that has sparked protests and lawsuits and could help define — for better or worse — Mayor Rahm Emanuel's term in office.
City officials say the closings are necessary because of falling school enrollment and as part of their efforts to improve the city's struggling education system. Critics have blasted Emanuel, the former White House chief of staff, and schools chief Barbara Byrd-Bennett, saying the closings disproportionately affect minority neighborhoods and will endanger children who may have to cross gang boundaries to get to a new school. http://news.yahoo.com/chicago-board-ed-votes-close-50-schools-202641726.html?soc_src=copy
'My Brother’s Keeper': Obama confronts obstacles facing young men of color President Obama has become increasingly direct in addressing the problems of minority youths. Thursday he announces 'My Brother's Keeper,' an initiative that touches him deeply and personally. By Linda Feldmann, Staff writer / February 27, 2014
President Barack Obama speaks during an appearance at Hyde Park Academy, Feb. 15, 2013, in Chicago. M. Spencer Green/AP Washington
From the earliest days of his presidency, Barack Obama has faced high expectations from African-American leaders – and a persistent question: What about a black agenda?
High unemployment. High incarceration rates. High dropout rates. These and many other pathologies have long plagued communities of color. But for the nation’s first African-American president, dealing with the “black” issue has been tricky. “I’m not the president of black America,” President Obama has said many times. “I’m the president of the United States of America.”
But increasingly, Mr. Obama has been addressing minority issues more directly. On Thursday, he will focus on the challenges of young black and Latino men when he unveils “My Brother’s Keeper” – an initiative named for a biblical phrase he uses regularly, conveying a belief that society must help those facing challenges. It aims to keep young minority men out of what is often called the “school-to-prison pipeline.”
RECOMMENDED: Race equality in America: How far have we come?
Obama will be joined in the East Room of the White House by foundation heads who have pledged to invest $200 million over five years in helping young men of color, on top of the $150 million they are already spending. Business and political leaders will also join the president, including former Gen. Colin Powell, Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, and former New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg.
One of the programs that will be represented at Thursday’s event – Becoming a Man (BAM), which operates mostly in public schools in Obama’s home town of Chicago – is especially near to the president’s heart. A year ago, Obama spent time with a group of high school boys in the BAM program at Hyde Park Academy High School, and by many accounts, was moved by the experience. Around Father’s Day, the boys visited him at the White House.
BAM is a counseling, mentoring, violence prevention, and educational enrichment program for at-risk males in Grades 7 through 12. It addresses what Youth Guidance – the organization over it – sees as the systemic causes of violence by focusing on six core values: integrity, accountability, self-determination, positive anger expression, visionary goal-setting, and respect for womanhood.
A recent study by the University of Chicago Crime Lab found that BAM reduced violent crime arrests by 44 percent, reduced weapons crime and vandalism by 36 percent, and reduced the likelihood of attending school in a juvenile justice setting by 53 percent. It also found that BAM increased future graduation rates by between 10 and 23 percent.
White House Obamas Talk Education and Inequality at Summit
Focus on increasing low-income students' access to higher education
President Barack Obama glances back to first lady Michelle Obama and Troy Simon, as he speaks during an Expanding College Opportunity event, Thursday, Jan. 16, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington.
President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama outlined their efforts Thursday to increase access to higher education, using a White House summit with dozens of business and education leaders to draw the connection between college degrees and economic mobility.
“We want to restore the essential promise of opportunity and upward mobility that’s at the heart of America,” the President said in a joint speech with the First Lady. “The notion that if you work hard, you can get ahead, you can improve your situation in life, you can make something of yourself.”
Obama promised to push for broadening educational opportunities using both “the power of the pen and the power of the telephone”—to sign executive orders that advance his agenda when he can’t rally Congress, and to use the power of the office to bring stakeholders together.
“Today is a great example of how, without a whole bunch of new legislation, we can advance this agenda,” Obama said.
More than 80 college presidents, philanthropic leaders and business executives attended Thursday’s summit and presented over 100 commitments that the president and National Economic Council hope will help get more low-income students to attend college. Organizations including The College Board, the nonprofit organization that administers the SAT, presented plans to better connect students with information they need about not only applying to college, but to the schools that best suit their needs and abilities.
Bridget Terry Long, a dean and professor at the Harvard University School of Education, said during a panel session that while getting more information to students is important, access alone does not ensure that they will attend and finish college.
“If we build it they won’t necessarily come,” Long said. “We have to be proactive with outreach.”
Michelle Obama said students from low-income backgrounds often overcome huge barriers just to attend college.
“Just to make it to college, these students have already overcome so much,” she said. “We can’t think of those experiences as weaknesses, in fact they are just the opposite. They are strengths.” http://swampland.time.com/2014/01/16/obamas-talk-education-and-inequality-at-summit/
Donny Hathaway~To Be Young, Gifted and Black http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGVipu8n38c
Separate and Unequal: A structural analysis of educational inequality in America September 22, 2009 - by Jeff Garrett -Fifty-five years ago, the United States Supreme Court ruled in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case that school segregation policies are unconstitutional. Yet despite the moral victory of the Brown decision, in the decades since 1954 we have failed to create educational equality in America. Despite countless initiatives, hundreds of billions of dollars invested in various school improvement efforts, and the passage of a federal law that mandates that no child be left behind, we continue to see gaps in educational opportunity that disproportionately impact the lives of low income communities and communities of color across the fifty states.
How can this be? In the wealthiest nation on earth, that has professed its commitment to eliminating these gaps for more than half a century, how can such glaring inequities persist? While we have gone to great lengths to experiment with education reform, we have done little to address the web of related social issues that together create the conditions necessary for educational success. We have spent our time and money focusing on things like toughening standards for students, making it harder to become a licensed teacher, and holding failing schools accountable for poor performance. And while many of these reform efforts have had some generally positive impact on the quality of education our children receive, all of these reforms ignore the fact that no matter what we do in schools, students still live their lives in communities that reflect the systemic economic, racial and environmental inequalities that our society has yet to resolve.
Like a patient with pneumonia who takes larger and larger doses of cough syrup and then wonders why they’re not getting better, we find ourselves treating primarily the symptoms of educational inequality rather than the root causes. If we hope to change our educational fortune, our society will need a cure that actually attacks the problem where it exists. It is only through a structural analysis of education that we can understand how issues like housing, school funding systems, and employment interact to shape our children’s ability to succeed in school.
Let’s start by looking at the issue of housing. There is perhaps no single greater factor in determining one’s educational experience than where you live. Despite the moral victory of Brown, for the average low income black and Latino student in America today, schools are only marginally less segregated than they were in 1954 and are growing more segregated every year.1 We have replaced the system of racial segregation with a system of residential segregation. Low-income blacks and Latinos are not explicitly forbidden from attending more affluent, majority-white schools because of their race, they are forbidden from attending because they are unable to secure housing in districts where affluent, high-functioning schools exist. This system, first declared constitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1974 case Miliken v. Bradley, essentially means that middle class and wealthy white communities need only to prevent low income people and people of color from moving into their districts in order to maintain segregated schools. Even cities that have sought to voluntarily integrate schools, like Seattle and Louisville, have been thwarted by recent conservative Court rulings.2 In actuality then, the great dream of integrated schools in America not only never fully materialized, what little progress had been made is being undone before our eyes. For many low income communities and communities of color, little has ever happened to disrupt what has for generations been a schooling experience defined by crumbling infrastructure, poor quality teaching, lack of resources for arts, music, athletics, and extracurricular activities, and high concentrations of poverty along with all of its destabilizing effects on the lives of children.
To fully understand the structural connections between educational opportunity and housing, first we must understand how schools receive funding. The primary source of funding for most school systems is property taxes. This means wealthy districts with high property values not only have more to spend on education, they can actually tax themselves at lower rates than their less affluent counterparts and still raise more money for schools. Even within school districts with diverse populations, providing equal per pupil funding for schools that serve populations with dramatically different needs can result in schools that reinforce, rather than reduce, inequality. In New York City for example, where per pupil funding is constant3 in the public schools throughout the city, schools that serve students who come to school with a range of academic and social needs that are not being met at home are at a perpetual disadvantage when compared to schools that serve students from more affluent and less needy areas.
The Bronx, for example, when compared to the other boroughs of New York city is notable for being home to the neighborhoods with the city’s highest concentrations of poverty, adult incarceration, unemployment, and adults who themselves have not attained a high school diploma.4 Given these social factors, it is a virtual certainty that, on average, students from the Bronx will come to school with greater need for academic, social and emotional support than their less challenged counterparts in wealthier areas of the city.5 The Bronx also has the lowest rates of home ownership in New York City, making students especially likely to change residences and schools multiple times.4 Studies have shown this kind of mobility to be a strong indicator of low performance.5 It is no surprise then that the Bronx has the lowest rates of students performing at grade level on standardized tests in Math and English in New York City.4
Because of modern school segregation, low-income students not only struggle with poverty related issues at home but generally receive an inferior education at school as well. This combination creates a sense of hopelessness and the perception that the benefits of education cannot be realized among many in these communities. This leads many students to achieve below their potential and to disengage from school, leaving them with few opportunities for gainful employment or to secure housing in an area where better schools could serve their own children in the future. Together these structural forces create a self-reinforcing cycle of poverty (both economic and educational) that disproportionately impacts the lives of people of color in America.5
The problems we face in closing gaps in educational opportunity and outcomes are not purely the result of inaction, or lack of effort, but rather the misunderstanding of the source of the problem. To succeed in eliminating educational inequality in this country we must begin to address the social and economic conditions in low income and minority communities. The prospect of this kind of systemic change can seem daunting, but here are three ways we can begin addressing the issue:
Employment - Create strong incentives for businesses that locate long term, living wage, environmentally friendly employment opportunities in low income and minority communities. In cities like New York, low-income minorities often live in areas with few opportunities for gainful employment.4 This compounds their geographic isolation, increases adult and teen unemployment, and forces parents to spend more time commuting to jobs in which they earn low wages. The presence of stable, living wage earning jobs in low income communities not only improves the economic fortunes of the area, it also provides a critical mass of role models who can reinforce for students the value of educational achievement.
Health Care - One of the more disastrous byproducts of poverty is many parents’ inability to support their child’s development and achievement in school. With inadequate access to physical and mental health care, vision testing, and nutritional counseling, many parents in low income and minority communities are unable to offer their children the support they need to be prepared for success in school. We would likely see greater gains in educational achievement among low income and minority students by investing in community support services like universal health care, school-based vision clinics, and mental health services, than we see from the billions we currently spend on No Child Left Behind reforms. 5
Housing Integration - Simply put, we will not likely be able to achieve educational equality without a dismantling of the new class and race based separate-but-equal school system being reestablished in America. The best way to ensure school integration is through housing integration. To achieve this we need rigorous enforcement of the long neglected 1968 Fair Housing Act, which contains provisions to ensure municipalities structure housing policy in ways that don’t reinforce racial segregation. In addition, we need a comprehensive, national strategy to ensure that as affluent whites move back into city centers, and blacks and Latinos are priced out of gentrifying areas and into the suburbs, we don’t simply shift populations in still segregated schools.1
Let’s get this straight… He did not care if Blacks were freed… it just came with the package. Lincoln publicly stated that if he could preserve the Union by keeping slavery in the United States, he would do so. Nor did he believe blacks were equal to whites.
Welcome to the Real Abraham Lincoln: Contained throughout this site is a collection of quotes from the United States 16th President, Abraham Lincoln. These quote have been divided as best we could, into topical categories, with little to no commentary added as they adequately stand alone in their meaning. http://www.pointsouth.com/lincoln/
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th president of the United States (1861-1865) and he became a legend and a folk hero after his death. Lincoln on Slavery & Emancipation Abraham Lincoln Speech- to Charleston, Illinois, 1858. I am not now, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the social or political equality of the white and black races. I am not now nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor of intermarriages with white people. There is a physical difference between the white and the black races which will forever forbid the two races living together on social or political equality. There must be a position of superior and inferior, and I am in favor of assigning the superior position to the white man. http://www.pointsouth.com/lincoln/race.htm
Lincoln in speeches at Peoria, Illinois: When Southern people tell us that they are no more responsible for the origin of slavery than we are, I acknowledge the fact… My first impulse would possibly be to free all slaves and send them to Liberia to their own native land. But a moment's reflection would convince me that this would not be best for them…What then? Free them all and keep them among us as underlings. Is it quite certain that this would alter their conditions? Free them and make them politically and socially our equals? My own feelings will not admit of this, and if mine would, we well know that those of the great mass of whites will not. We cannot make them our equals. A system of gradual emancipation might well be adopted, and I will not undertake to judge our Southern friends for tardiness in this matter. http://www.pointsouth.com/lincoln/slavery.htm
Do the people of the South really entertain fear that a Republican administration would directly or indirectly interfere with their slaves, or with them about their slaves? If they do, I wish to assure you as once a friend, and still, I hope, not an enemy , that there is no cause for such fears. The South would be in no more danger in this respect than it was in the days of Washington. http://www.pointsouth.com/lincoln/slavery3.htm
Letter from Lincoln to A.H. Stephens…Public and Private Letters of Alexander Stephens, My paramount object, is to save the Union, and not either destroy or save slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing the slaves, I would do it. If I could save the Union by freeing some and leaving others in slavery, I would do it. If I could save it by freeing all, I would do that. What I do about slavery and the colored race, I do because it helps save the Union. http://www.pointsouth.com/lincoln/slavery3.htm
Lincoln's 1st Inaugural Address I have no purpose directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. I acknowledge the constitutional rights of the States - not grudgingly, but fairly and fully, and I will give them any legislation for reclaiming their fugitive slaves. The point the Republican party wanted to stress was to oppose making slave States out of the newly acquired territory, not abolishing slavery as it then existed. http://www.pointsouth.com/lincoln/slavery2.htm .
Abraham Lincoln & Alexander Ramsey... "Largest mass hanging in United States history" 38 Santee "Sioux" Indian men Mankato, Minnesota, Dec. 16, 1862 - - 303 Indian males were set to be hanged , What brought about the hanging of 38 Sioux Indians in Minnesota December 26, 1862 was the failure "again" of the U.S. Government to honor it's treaties with Indian Nations. Indians were not given the money or food set forth to them for signing a treaty to turn over more than a million acres of their land and be forced to live on a reservation. Indian agents keep the treaty money and food that was to go to the Indians, the food was sold to White settlers, food that was given to the Indians was spoiled and not fit for a dog to eat. Indian hunting parties went off the reservation land looking for food to feed their families, one hunting group took eggs from a White settlers land and the rest is history. Information below tells how President Lincoln and Minnesota Governor Alexander Ramsey set out to exterminate Indians from their home land.
Dec 27 1862 (Saturday)
SAINT PAUL, December 27, 1862. The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I have the honor to inform you that the thirty-eight Indians and half-breeds ordered by you for execution were hung yesterday at Mankato at 10 a.m. Everything went off quietly and the other prisoners are well secured. Respectfully, H. H. SIBLEY, Brigadier-General. http://www.unitednativeamerica.com/hanging.html
“... the right of a state to secede from the Union [has been] settled forever by the highest tribunal – arms – that man can resort to.” Ulysses S. Grant'. (1862) “If I thought this war was to abolish slavery, I would resign my commission and offer my sword to the other side.” Ulysses S. Grant. (Grant's family owned slaves during the war) http://www.users.waitrose.com/~robinphillips/FF%20vs.%20AL.htm
Interior view of a slave pen, showing the doors of cells where the slaves were held before being sold. Slave pen, Alexandria, Va. Photographed between 1861 and 1865, printed later. http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/ig/Slavery-Photographs-and-Images/Slave-Pen.htm
Harriet Tubman was born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland in about 1820. In 1848 Tubman decided to try and escape from her plantation. Her husband, John Tubman, refused to go with her as he believed it was too dangerous. Her two bothers accompanied her but later they became frightened and decided to return to the plantation. Tubman made her way north by the Underground Railroad . Later, Tubman returned to rescue the rest of the family. This was the first of 19 secret trips she made to the South, during which she guided more than 300 slaves to freedom. Tubman's activities became so notorious that plantation owners offered a $40,000 reward for her capture. During the American Civil War Tubman worked as a nurse, scout and an intelligence agent for the Union Army. Tubman's former activities as a conductor on the Underground Railroad made her especially useful as a scout during the conflict. With the help of Sarah Bradford, she wrote her autobiography, Harriet Tubman, the Moses of Her People , (1869). With the royalties from the book and a small pension from the United States Army she purchased a house in Auburn, New York and turned it into a home for the aged and needy.
Tubman (far left), with Davis (seated, with cane), their adopted daughter Gertie (beside Tubman), Lee Cheney, John "Pop" Alexander, Walter Green, Blind "Aunty" Sarah Parker, and great-niece, Dora Stewart at Tubman's home in Auburn, New York circa 1887. Harriet Tubman died on 10th March, 1913. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAStubman.htm
October 29, 2003 - Senator Clinton Secures Funding to Repay Harriet Tubman Civil War Pension: Harriet Tubman requested a pension for her service in the Union Army during the Civil War, but never received one. However her last husband, Nelson Davis, served in the United States Colored Infantry and under the Dependent Pension Act of 1890, Harriet Tubman received an $8 per month widow's pension as the spouse of a deceased veteran from June 1890 until January 1899. On January 19, 1899 by enacting H.R. 4982, the 55th Congress authorized the Secretary of the Interior to pay Harriet Tubman a widow's pension of $25 per month for the duration of her life, however Harriet Tubman received only $20 per month until her death on March 10, 1913, after which she was buried Fort Hill Cemetery in Auburn, New York, with military honors. The funding approved today is the sum which compensates for the widow's pension withheld from Harriet Tubman between January 1899 and her death in 1913, adjusted from 1913 to present day, equal to $11,750. http://www.harriettubman.com/senclintion.html
Harriet Tubman From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman
Jefferson Davis (born June 3, 1808, Christian county, Ky., U.S. — died Dec. 6, 1889, New Orleans, La.) U.S. political leader, president of the Confederate States of America (1861 – 65). He graduated from West Point and served as a lieutenant in the Wisconsin Territory and later in the Black Hawk War. In 1835 he became a planter in Mississippi. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1845 – 46), he resigned to serve in the Mexican War , in which he distinguished himself at the Battle of Buena Vista . A national hero, he served in the U.S. Senate (1847 – 51) and as Pres. Franklin Pierce 's secretary of war (1853 – 57). He returned to the Senate in 1857, where he advocated states' rights but tried to discourage secession. After Mississippi seceded in 1861, he resigned and was chosen president of the Confederacy. He conducted the South's war effort despite shortages of manpower, supplies, and money and opposition from radicals within his administration. After Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered without Davis's approval in April 1865, Davis fled Richmond, Va., the Confederate capital, hoping to continue the fight until he could secure better terms from the North. Captured and indicted for treason, he was never tried. After two years imprisonment, he was released in poor health in 1867. He retired to Mississippi. His citizenship was restored posthumously in 1978. http://www.answers.com/topic/jefferson-davis
Trent Lott's "Uptown Klan"... In 1978, after his election to the US House, Lott led a successful campaign to have the US citizenship of Jefferson Davis restored. Davis lost his citizenship when he became president of the Confederate States of America when southern states were in open revolt against the US government. http://www.thenation.com/blogs/thebeat/208
Sojourner Truth… (Name at birth: Isabella Baumfree): Born 1797, Hurley, N.Y. Died 26 Nov. 1883 Truth began life as a slave and ended it as a celebrated anti-slavery activist. She was born in New York and was sold several times before escaping to freedom with an infant daughter in 1827. She worked as a housekeeper, lived in a religious commune, and eventually became a travelling speaker and preacher. Although she could not read or write, Truth was a captivating speaker: she reportedly stood nearly six feet tall and was a spirited evangelist who spoke out for women's rights and against slavery. Prompted by religious feelings, she changed her name to Sojourner Truth in 1843. Her memoir The Narrative of Sojourner Truth (as told to author Olive Gilbert) was published in 1850 and helped establish her in the public mind. The next year, at a women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio, she gave her famous speech, "Ain't I A Woman," a short but stirring challenge to the notion that men were superior to women. During the Civil War she worked to support black Union soldiers, and after the war she continued to travel and preach on spiritual topics and as an advocate for the rights of blacks and women. http://www.answers.com/topic/sojourner-truth
John Brown was a man of action - - a man who would not be deterredfrom his mission of abolishing slavery. On October 16, 1859, he led 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His plan to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal was thwarted, however, by local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown's men had been killed or captured. Brown was wounded and quickly captured, and moved to Charlestown, Virginia, where he was tried and convicted of treason, Before hearing his sentence, Brown was allowed make an address to the court.
. . I believe to have interfered as I have done, . . . in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it be deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be done."... John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859. http://afroamhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=afroamhistory&cdn=education&tm=51&gps=58_412_1020_617&f=00&tt=14&bt=1&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html
June 12, 2009 Rewriting John Brown's story 150 years later
The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War under his war powers. It proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln announced that he would issue a formal emancipation of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. The actual order was signed and issued January 1, 1863; it named the locations under Confederate control where it would apply. Lincoln issued the Executive Order by his authority as "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy" under Article II, section 2 of the United States Constitution. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation
Sharecropping was an agricultural labor system
that developed in Georgia and throughout the South following Reconstruction and lasted until the mid-twentieth century. Under this arrangement, laborers with no land of their own worked on farm plots owned by others, and at the end of the season landowners paid workers a share of the crop.
designed to negotiate labor deals between white landowners and former slaves, many of whom resented the system and refused to participate. Instead of enjoying the often quoted "forty acres and a mule" that the government might have provided, freed slaves in Georgia were left with few options as free laborers.
By 1910 sharecroppers operated 37 percent of the state's 291,027 farms. Tenancy rates in general and sharecropping rates in particular were highest in those portions of the state that grew mostly cotton. In 1910, for instance, Burke, Dooly, and Houston counties led the state's cotton production, and each had higher than average rates of tenant-operated farms and sharecropper populations.
The Labor System
particulars of sharecropping agreements differed from place to place and over time, but generally those workers who could offer nothing but their ability to perform farm tasks made arrangements that overwhelmingly favored the landlord...Share-renters were laborers who could promise the landowner a fixed portion of the crop as payment for "renting" the land for a season....Land was not, however, the only thing sharecroppers needed from the owners. The owners of the state's largest plantations would also sell fertilizer, seed, clothing, shoes, and some food from the plantation store. The laborers rarely had cash, however, so in both cases they were extended credit to make purchases.... With whatever cash the laborers made in this sale, they attempted to pay back the debt accrued during the season from the supplier.
exchange was notorious for the chicanery that it allowed landowners, creditors, and cotton buyers to commit. A sharecropper, often illiterate, rarely had the opportunity to check the books and add up his or her own debt, to calculate the interest, or even to shop his or her cotton to different buyers. In many cases the sharecropper was told that the amount he made selling his crop was not sufficient to settle the debts accrued during the year. In this case the workers were bound to the landlord for another season.
Though much has been made of the system of peonage that kept sharecroppers in perpetual debt, tying workers to the same plantation year after year, there is significant evidence that Georgia croppers moved rather fluidly from place to place and from one form of labor to another.
most sharecroppers, making money and paying off debts were not the only factors that mattered when it came to deciding whether or not to stay on a certain farm from one year to the next. In many cases a major factor was the extent to which the landowner attempted to control workers' non-farm life. End of Sharecropping
Sharecropping in Georgia ended in the mid-twentieth century, in part because workers left the fields for southern and northern cities. Black Georgians left the state for a variety of reasons, and landowners sought new technologies to make cotton growing possible (and less expensive) with fewer people in the fields. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-3590
After the establishment of the Ku Klux Klan in 1867 the number of lynching of African American increased dramatically. The main objective of the KKK was to maintain white supremacy in the South, which they felt was under threat after their defeat in the Civil War. It has been estimated that between 1880 and 1920, an average of two African Americans a week were lynched in the United States.
James Weldon Johnson named the summer of 1919 the "Red Summer" for the rash of deadly riots which erupted in more than twenty-five American cities between April and October of that year. Racial tensions were at an extreme in Omaha that summer; the influx of African Americans from the South and a perceived epidemic of crime created an atmosphere of mistrust and fear that led to the lynching of William Brown.
Brown had been accused of molesting a white girl. When police arrested him on September 28, a mob quickly formed which ignored orders from authorities that they disperse. When Mayor Edward P. Smith appeared to plead for calm, he was kidnapped by the mob, hung to a trolley pole, and nearly killed before police were able to cut him down.
The rampaging mob set the courthouse prison on fire and seized Brown. He was hung from a lamppost, mutilated, and his body riddled with bullets, then burned. Four other people were killed and fifty wounded before troops were able to restore order.
This photograph was acquired from a Lincoln, Nebraska, man whose grandfather purchased it for two dollars as a souvenir while visiting Omaha in 1919. http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_80.html
Louisiana Lynchings, 1878-1946 This list is approximately complete within the dates given; but it probably misses some incidents http://academic.evergreen.edu/p/pfeiferm/Louisiana.html
http://georgehigh.com/Disfranchised/Civil%20War%20amendments.pdf Civil War amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Ida B. Wells-Barnett was a fearless anti-lynching crusader, suffragist, women's rights advocate, journalist, and speaker. She stands as one of our nation's most uncompromising leaders and most ardent defenders of democracy. She was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862 and died in Chicago, Illinois 1931 at the age of sixty-nine. In 1894, Ida B. Wells published A Red Record: She Tabulated Statistics and Alleged Causes of Lynching in the United States, 1892-1894. This 100 page book expanded on her earlier research and documented the history of lynching since the Emancipation Proclamation. Wells tabulated the number of lynching reported in the Chicago Tribunal and tallied the various charges given. Her findings documented the alarming high occurrence of lynching and the rather ridiculous charges filed against black men. For example, she found that in 1894 "197 persons were put to death by mobs who gave the victims no opportunity to make a lawful defense". Furthermore, she found that over two-thirds of lynching were for incredibly petty crimes such as stealing hogs and quarreling with neighbors. http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/idabwells.html .
Congressman Leonidas Dyer of Missouri first introduced his Anti-Lynching Bill--known as the Dyer Bill--into Congress in 1918. The NAACP supported the passage of this bill from 1919 onward; they had not done so initially, arguing that the bill was unconstitutional based on the recommendations of Moorfield Storey, a lawyer and the first president of the NAACP. Storey revised his position in 1918 and from 1919 onward the NAACP supported Dyer's anti-lynching legislation. The Dyer Bill was passed by the House of Representatives on the 26th of January 1922, and was given a favorable report by the Senate Committee assigned to report on it in July 1922, but its passage was halted by a filibuster in the Senate. Efforts to pass similar legislation were not taken up again until the 1930s with the Costigan-Wagner Bill. The Dyer Bill influenced the text of anti-lynching legislation promoted by the NAACP into the 1950s, including the Costigan-Wagner Bill. http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/lynch/doc1.htm
May 16, 1916, Robinson, Texas. Charred corpse of Jesse Washington suspended from utility pole http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/pics_22.html The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP...The NAACP also fought a long campaign against lynching. In 1919 it published Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States: 1889-1918. The NAACP also paid for large adverts in major newspapers presenting the facts about lynching. To show that the members of the organization would not be intimidated, it held its 1920 annual conference in Atlanta, considered at the time to be one of the most active Ku Klux Klan areas in America. http://www.patriciabernstein.com/
Mary B. Talbert, (1866–1923)… She helped to plant the seeds for the NAACP. Frederick Douglass and W.E.B DuBois sat at her dining room table. She fought for women's rights a half-century before Betty Friedan untied her apron strings. She railed against colonialism in Africa, had an audience with the queen of England and pressured Woodrow Wilson to sign a federal anti-lynching law (he didn't). She blasted segregation 50 years before Jim Crow came tumbling down. She was the first woman to get a doctorate from the University of Buffalo. She was a preservationist who saved Douglass' home in Washington, D.C. Some experts put her up with Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth as a civil rights activist. http://www.buffaloah.com/h/tal/tal2.html
The NAACP hoped that the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 would bring an end to lynching. Two African American campaigners against lynching, Mary McLeod Bethune and Walter Francis White, had been actively involved in helping Roosevelt to obtain victory. The president's wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, had also been a long-time opponent of lynching. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USArooseveltF.htm
Mary McLeod Bethune (Educator) 1875-1955…The daughter of former slaves, and one of the most widely known African American women of the twentieth century, Mary McLeod Bethune was an educator, political advisor, and civil rights leader. After graduation from the Scotia Seminary in 1895, she taught at the Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia, then at Kendall Institute in Sumter, South Carolina, where she met and later married Albertus Bethune. In October 1904, Bethune founded the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls in a small rented cabin, and continued to develop the school over the next two decades. When white hospitals denied service to black patients and training for black residents and nurses, Bethune founded McLeod Hospital to serve the community and to provide training for black physicians and nurses. By 1922, the school had over 300 students and a staff of 25, later becoming the Bethune-Cookman College. As well as working for education, Bethune founded the Circle of Negro War Relief in New York City during World War I, was vice president of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, and served as president for two terms in the National Association of Colored Women , advising the Coolidge and Hoover administrations on African American issues. In 1935, Bethune founded the National Council of Negro Women and served as president until 1949. She retired from public life on her seventy-fifth birthday in 1950, settling in her home on the campus of Bethune-Cookman College, and over the next five years received 12 honorary degrees. http://www.africanamericans.com/MaryMcLeodBethune.htm
Mary McLeon Bethume From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_McLeod_Bethune
Walter White (1893-1955) A native of Atlanta , Walter White served as chief secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1929 to 1955. During the twenty-five years preceding the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, White was one of the most prominent African American figures and spokespeople in the country. Upon his death in 1955, the New York Times eulogized him as "the nearest approach to a national leader of American Negroes since Booker T. Washington... http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-747
Hitler's Forgotten Victims reveals that sterilisation programmes for Blacks had been instigated by Germany's most senior Nazi geneticist, Doctor Eugen Fischer, who developed his racial theories in German South-West Africa (now Namibia) long before the First World War. It was in this colonial context that Fischer identified what he considered genetic dangers arising from race-mixing between German colonists and African women. The documentary also provides disturbing photographic evidence of German genocidal tendencies in Africa, which began with the Heroro massacre. In 1904, the Heroro tribe of German South-West Africa revolted against their colonial masters in a quest to keep their land; the rebellion lasted four years, leading to the death of 60,000 Heroro tribespeople (80% of their population). The survivors were imprisoned in concentration camps or used as human guinea pigs for medical experiments, a policy that was a foretaste of things to come for German Blacks and the Jewish community http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/61/201.html
Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany The Remarkable Life of Hans Massaquoi http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0003/black_nazi.html
Black German Holocaust Victims - So much of history is lost to us because we often don't write the history books, film the documentaries, nor pass the accounts down from generation to generation. One documentary now touring the film festival circuit, telling us to 'Always Remember' is 'Black Survivors of the Holocaust' (1997). Outside the U.S., the film is entitled 'Hitler's Forgotten Victims' (Afro-Wisdom Productions) . It codifies another dimension to the 'Never Forget ' Holocaust story--our dimension. Did you know that in the 1920's, there were 24,000 Blacks living in Germany? Neither did I. Here's how it happened, and how many of them were eventually caught unawares by the events of the Holocaust. Like most West European nations, Germany established colonies in Africa in the late 1800's in what later became Togo, Cameroon, Namibia, and Tanzania. German genetic experiments began there, most notably involving prisoners taken from the 1904 Heroro Massacre that left 60,000 Africans dead, following a 4-year revolt against German colonization. After the shellacking Germany received in World War I, it was stripped of its African colonies in 1918. http://www.streamsofjustice.org/2008/06/black-german-holocaust-victims.html
Richard B. Russell Jr. served in public office for fifty years as a state legislator , governor of Georgia, and U.S. senator. Russell was best known for his efforts to strengthen the national defense and to oppose Civil Rights legislation. Russell began contesting civil rights legislation as early as 1935,when an anti lynching bill was introduced in Congress. By 1938 he led the Southern Bloc in resisting such federal legislation based on the unconstitutionality of its provisions. The Southern Bloc argued that these provisions were infringements on states' rights. By continually blocking passage of a cloture rule in the Senate, Russell preserved unlimited debate as a method for halting or weakening civil rights legislation. Over the next three decades, through filibuster and Russell's command of the Senate's parliamentary rules and precedents, the Southern Bloc stymied all civil rights legislation.
Russell was a defender of white southern traditions and values…He believed in white supremacy and a separate but equal society… His arguments for maintaining segregation were drawn as much from constitutional beliefs in a Jeffersonian government that both emphasizes a division of federal and state powers and fosters personal and economic freedom as they were from notions of race. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1391 Russell's stand on civil rights was costly to the nation and to Russell himself. It contributed to his defeat in a bid for the presidency, often diverted him from other legislative and appointed business, limited his ability to accept change, weakened his health, and tainted his record historically. Russell died of complications from emphysema at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., on January 21, 1971. The following year Russell's colleagues passed Senate Resolution 296 naming his old office building the Richard Brevard Russell Senate Office Building and subsequently naming the federal courthouse in Atlanta, The Richard Russell Federal Building .
Some of the Tuskegee Study Group clinicians. Dr. Reginald D. James (third to right), a black physician involved with public health work in Macon County , was not directly involved in the study. Nurse Rivers is on the left. CDC - U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: For forty years between 1932 and 1972, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis. These men, for the most part illiterate sharecroppers from one of the poorest counties in Alabama, were never told what disease they were suffering from or of its seriousness. Informed that they were being treated for “bad blood,” their doctors had no intention of curing them of syphilis at all.
Subjects talking with study coordinator, Nurse Eunice Rivers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_Syphilis_Study
The data for the experiment was to be collected from autopsies of the men, and they were thus deliberately left to degenerate under the ravages of tertiary syphilis—which can include tumors, heart disease, paralysis, blindness, insanity, and death. “As I see it,” one of the doctors involved explained, “we have no further interest in these patients until they die.”
When the experiment was brought to the attention of the media in 1972, news anchor Harry Reasoner described it as an experiment that “used human beings as laboratory animals in a long and inefficient study of how long it takes syphilis to kill someone.”
Charlie Pollard survivor Herman Shaw, survivor Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_Syphilis_Study
By the end of the experiment, 28 of the men had died directly of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilis. How had these men been induced to endure a fatal disease in the name of science? http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/Story.asp?s=1207598
U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee: The eight men who are survivors of the syphilis study at Tuskegee are a living link to a time not so very long ago that many Americans would prefer not to remember, but we dare not forget. It was a time when our nation failed to live up to its ideals, when our nation broke the trust with our people that is the very foundation of our democracy. It is not only in remembering that shameful past that we can make amends and repair our nation, but it is in remembering that past that we can build a better present and a better future. And without remembering it, we cannot make amends and we cannot go forward.
So today America does remember the hundreds of men used in research without their knowledge and consent. We remember them and their family members. Men who were poor and African American, without resources and with few alternatives, they believed they had found hope when they were offered free medical care by the United States Public Health Service. They were betrayed.
Medical people are supposed to help when we need care, but even once a cure was discovered, they were denied help, and they were lied to by their government. Our government is supposed to protect the rights of its citizens; their rights were trampled upon. Forty years, hundreds of men betrayed, along with their wives and children, along with the community in Macon County, Alabama, the City of Tuskegee, the fine university there, and the larger African American community.
The United States government did something that was wrong -- deeply, profoundly, morally wrong. It was an outrage to our commitment to integrity and equality for all our citizens. http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/clintonp.htm
The Guatemala Syphilis Experiment's Tuskegee Roots: 9/1/11 Recent revelations that the U.S. government knowingly infected Central Americans with syphilis in the 1940s have eerie echoes to the infamous 40-year experiment with 400 infected black men in Macon County, Ala. As it turns out, this is no coincidence.
On Friday, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius apologized for a diabolical human experiment conducted in Central America 64 years ago and engineered by the U.S. government. From 1946 to 1948, scientists deliberately infected Guatemalan research subjects with syphilis to study how well penicillin worked.
Sound familiar? It should. This experiment is eerily similar to the notorious 40-year Tuskegee Study that used African-American men as human lab rats. Beginning in the 1930s in Macon County, Ala., the U.S. government left more than 400 syphilis-infected black men untreated to study the course of the disease. The men, who suffered from the often debilitating, sometimes deadly late-stage form of the sexually transmitted disease, thought they were getting free medical care for "bad blood." They were never told that they were actually subjects being followed in a long-term, "no treatment" study that finally ended in 1972. The men, poor and uneducated, were also given free meals and promised money for burials if they allowed their bodies to be autopsied. http://www.theroot.com/views/tuskegee-study-s-guatemalan-roots
WHAT THE MEDIA WON'T TELL YOU: JIM JONES WAS A CIA OPERATIVE CONDUCTING MIND CONTROL EXPERIMENTS - - THE JONESTOWN MASSACRE On November 18 1978, 913 people died in Jonestown, a small compound carved out of the jungles of Guyana, a small country on the northeast coast of South America. http://www.whale.to/b/jonestown1.html
Jim Jones - The Jonestown Massacre: On November 18, 1978, Anticipating the end of his ministry and certain arrest, Jim Jones then ordered the "state of emergency" he had so long anticipated. This carefully rehearsed mass suicide (912) now finally took place. Everyone, except the very few that escaped into the surrounding jungle, either committed suicide or was murdered. More than 280 children were killed. Jim Jones body was found at Jonestown, fatally wounded by a gunshot to the head. Though racially diverse, most of Jones followers were African Americans. http://www.culteducation.com/jonestown.
Short film of Jim Jones…information revealed that Jones abused his members. He would physically beat his followers, and force both men and women to have sex with him. Members gave him their life savings and even signed their social security checks over to him. http://www.encyclomedia.com/the_peoples_temple.html
Jim Jones: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the Peoples Temple leader http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Jones
Judge Denies Bid To Stop Oakland Jonestown Memorial Dedication - May 26, 2011 OAKLAND (CBS SF) – A judge denied a bid Thursday for a preliminary injunction that would have blocked the formal unveiling of a memorial at an Oakland cemetery that commemorates the 918 victims of the mass suicide at Jonestown in Guyana in 1978. http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2011/05/26/judge-denies-bid-to-stop-oakland-jonestown-memorial-dedication/
... jonestown survivors temple defectors and the families of the dead
Jack Anderson: On September 27, 1980, a column by respected investigative reporter Jack Anderson was published under the title "CIA Involved In Jonestown Massacre."
This was the first allegation of CIA involvement in the Jonestown incident. According to Anderson, both Richard Dwyer and Jim Jones had ties to the CIA, with Dwyer's ties dating to at least 1959; when quizzed directly about this alleged CIA involvement, Dwyer responded "no comment."
At one point on the sound-recording made during the mass suicide, Jones' own voice commands, "Take Dwyer on down to the east house" and a short time later, Jones says "Get Dwyer out of here before something happens to him." This is considered by some to be evidence that Richard Dwyer, a U.S. embassy official, was really a CIA operative. http://www.spirituallysmart.com/jonestown.html
Time to declassify? Over the years, there have been rumors of CIA involvement. Some people believe CIA agents were posing as members of the Peoples Temple cult to gather information; others suggest the agency was conducting a mind-control experiment.
In 1980, the House Select Committee on Intelligence determined that the CIA had no advance knowledge of the mass murder-suicide. The year before, the House Foreign Affairs Committee had concluded that cult leader Jim Jones "suffered extreme paranoia." http://www.spirituallysmart.com/jonestown.html
The committee -- now known as international relations -- released a 782-page report, but kept more than 5,000 other pages secret. Without those documents, it's hard to confirm or refute the speculations that have sprung up around Jonestown, said Melton, who planned to be in Washington Wednesday to ask for the documents' release.
George Berdes, chief consultant to the committee at the time of the investigation, told the San Francisco Chronicle the papers were classified to assure sources' confidentiality, but he thinks it is time to declassify them. . http://www.rickross.com/groups/jonestown.html
Heaven's Gate was an American UFO religion based in San Diego, California, founded and led by Marshall Applewhite (1931–1997) and Bonnie Nettles (1928–1985). On March 26, 1997, in a period when Comet Hale-Bopp was at its brightest, police discovered the bodies of 39 members of the group who had committed suicide in order to reach an alien aircraft which was supposedly following the aforementioned comet. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heaven%27s_Gate_%28religious_group%29
http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/ Searching through America's past for the last 25 years, collector James Allen uncovered an extraordinary visual legacy: photographs and postcards taken as souvenirs at lynchings throughout America. With essays by Hilton Als, Leon Litwack, Congressman John Lewis and James Allen, these photographs have been published as a book "Without Sanctuary" by Twin Palms Publishers .
Albert Pike (December 29, 1809–April 2, 1891 - was an attorney, Confederate officer, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C. (in Judiciary Square) mostly due to his masonic connection with President Andrew Johnson, who pardoned Pike for treason after the American Civil War. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Pike
Albert Pike (December 29, 1809–April 2, 1891) The Ku Klux Klan, the Southern Confederacy, and the pre-Civil War secession movement were a single, continuous project, with Pike’s "Scottish Rite" at its center. Though the Confederacy was defeated, this project lives on today, and now dominates U.S. political life. Look at Baker & Botts, the Houston family firm and power base of Secretary of State James A. Baker III. This law firm was formed after the Civil War by die-hard Confederate and Masonic officials in Albert Pike’s Scottish Rite and military clique. With their British imperial racial notions, Baker & Botts and Scottish Rite freemasonry have dominated the Texas power structure ever since. Secretary Baker’s grandfather, Captain James A. Baker, brought English race scientist Julian Huxley in to supervise the "race purification" study program for Texas, at Rice University. Secretary Baker’s family wealth and power came from their representing Harriman, the international oil companies and George Bush’s Zapata Petroleum, all sponsors of the population control, or ban-dark-babies movement. This movement is synonymous with the Scottish Rite. http://itwasjohnson.impiousdigest.com/kkkmas.htm
Scottish Rite Masons - The Scottish Rite has had more than its share of great men. We list only a few here to give our reader a sampling of the range of talents which can always be found in the college of Freemasonry. http://guthriescottishrite.org/scottishritemasons.aspx
The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial is a memorial scheduled to be dedicated on Washington, D.C.'s National Mall on August 28, 2011, the 48th anniversary of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. It will be located adjacent to the FDR Memorial, between the Lincoln Memorial and Jefferson Memorial, and will honor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr's national and international contributions to the American dream—a dream he spoke of in terms of possibility and hope—and its pillars of freedom, democracy, and opportunity for all. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr._National_Memorial
Fredrick Douglass - WEST INDIA EMANCIPATION, speech, August 3, 1857 …If there is no struggle there is no progress. Those who profess to favor freedom and yet deprecate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground, they want rain without thunder and lightning. They want the ocean without the awful roar of its many waters.
This struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, and it may be both moral and physical, but it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have found out the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them, and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. In the light of these ideas, Negroes will be hunted at the North, and held and flogged at the South so long as they submit to those devilish outrages, and make no resistance, either moral or physical. Men may not get all they pay for in this world, but they must certainly pay for all they get. If we ever get free from the oppressions and wrongs heaped upon us, we must pay for their removal. We must do this by labor, by suffering, by sacrifice, and if needs be, by our lives and the lives of others. http://www.lib.rochester.edu/index.cfm?PAGE=4398
Today's headlines are replete with stories regarding an ugly and thoroughly racist cartoon in the New York Post that connects President Obama with the worst stereotypes often falsely associated with African-Americans. Meanwhile Attorney General Holder stated that the US is "a nation of cowards that needs to finally--and urgently--begin confronting the issue of race relations before it polarizes the country even further". The race issue is once again front and center in America. But what isn't being discussed at this time of economic depression is the need for black-white working class unity in order to establish profound and positive change in America. Why is this solidarity so critically important? Because only a multi-racial bottom up movement can work with President Obama to restore economic justice and fairness in America.
It's not surprising that as the economy goes on life support and people of all races and backgrounds face the double threat of foreclosure and unemployment the forces of reaction would once again resort to racist images and other attempts to convince working class whites that African Americans are their great problem. It's an old playbook we need to review if we as a people are to overcome past mistakes and move forward to establish Dr. King's beloved community…
… And so we had the creation of the American racism system. A system that has been battered by the North's victory in the Civil War, the glorious victories of the civil rights movement and yes by the election of President Barack Obama. And yet a system that still remains to this day.
So the eternal question remains, what is to be done? Do substantial numbers of white workers, especially but not exclusively in the South, continue to support the racism system and its right wing radio demagogues and the Wall Street banksters in return for their meager relative advantages versus blacks? Or do white workers join with their black, Latino, Asian and indigenous sisters and brothers in a multi-racial people's movement that finally establishes democracy and justice in America? The choice is ours, which road will we take? http://www.opednews.com/articles/Why-We-Need-Black-White-Un-by-Perry-Stein-090219-171.html
(Thomas Paine) The rule of Law in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law. Thomas Paine in his pamphlet - "Common Sense" (1776) stated: "For as in absolute governments, the King is Law, so in free countries the law ought to be the King, and there ought to be no other." The rule of law means that everyone is subject to the law; that no one, no matter how important or powerful, is above the law - not the President, not the Prime Minister. If anyone were above the law, none of our liberties would be safe. http://allafrica.com/stories/200811031131.html
One of the very oldest principles of our legal heritage is that the king is subject to the law. See Romans 13. King John was taught this principle at Runnymede in A.D. 1215, when his barons forced him to submit to Magna Carta, the great charter that imposed limits on the exercise of sovereign power. See William Sharp McKechnie, Magna Carta, 36-42 (1914). One of the first modern expositions of this hallowed principle is found in Lex, Rex, whose title indicated the fundamental shift in our legal heritage toward the primacy of the law and the subordinate position of the king. Justice Brandeis expounded as follows on the principle:
Since the 1870 Act that established the Department of Justice as an executive department of the government of the United States, the Attorney General has guided the world's largest law office and the central agency for enforcement of federal laws. http://www.justice.gov/ag/about-oag.html
Federal Bureau of Investigation - The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation (BOI). Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935.
The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation
The more powerful the Department of Justice & FBI becomes, the more injustices Black American people can expect. All of these Crimes, Civil Rights violations and some of the following killings occurred up to 60 + years ago. Evidence was sometimes destroyed to prevent further investigating. Some crime-scene samples — clothing, hair strands, blood stains — were lost. Memories have faded, and witnesses have died. Of those still alive, some are afraid to come forward even now. Others are ashamed, unwilling to bear witness against relatives who did the Ku Klux Klan's bidding. The DOJ & FBI knows who the perpetrators were/are and in some cases they were actually in collusion with them and a part of the cover-up, that continue until this very day. Since (90 + % ) of all of the lynching, beatings, church and home burnings were done to or against ”Black Folks”, it is only fitting that a Black man (George High) who is in fact a victims of the DOJ’s brand of vigilante justice should bring the charges which prove “beyond a reasonable doubt” that the Department of Justice and FBI cannot be trusted to police itself or protect Black Americans against gross violations of their rights…Is the DOJ & FBI above the law - or, are they the law?
8/31/09 Criminal Complaint (scroll up) http://georgehigh.com/email%20and%20letters/Crim.%20Com.%208-31-09.pdf
sent to these folks http://georgehigh.com/email%20and%20letters/Criminal%20Complaint%208-31-09.pdf
'No one is above the law,' Holder says of torture inquiry April 22nd, 2009
With just three words, Attorney General-designate Eric Holder capped years of angry debate over U.S. counterterrorism policy and declared a major break from the Bush administration. "Waterboarding is torture," said Holder, President-elect Barack Obama's pick to run the Justice Department.
FIGHTING TERROR Holder's blunt response to the first question at his confirmation hearing Thursday was one that many on the Senate Judiciary Committee had sought after years of non-answers on the subject from Attorney General Michael Mukasey and his predecessor, Alberto Gonzales.
Asked whether a president might have the power to immunize people against criminal charges if they employ waterboarding, which creates a drowning-like sensation, to obtain intelligence, Holder answered unambiguously: "No one is above the law." He said the United States must not use the tactic regardless of the circumstances.
His testimony was just the latest sign that Obama will chart a different course than President Bush in combatting terrorism. As recently as last week, Vice President Dick Cheney defended waterboarding, saying it provided valuable intelligence. As a practical matter, Holder said torture does not lead to reliable intelligence. And on principle, he said the United States needed to live up to its own high standards, even in the face of terrorism. http://www.startribune.com/politics/37686304.html
The FBI Going Rogue, February 13, 2011 ...The history of the FBI is the history of how America -- once a nation that abided by the rule of law and held the government accountable for its actions -- has steadily devolved into a police state where laws are unidirectional, intended as a tool for government to control the people and rarely the other way around.
Yet it was during the social and political upheaval of the 1960s that the FBI's transformation into a federal policing and surveillance agency really began, one aimed not so much at the criminal element but at those who challenged the status quo -- namely, those expressing anti-government sentiments. According to J. Edgar Hoover, the FBI's first and most infamous director...Among those most closely watched by the FBI during that time period was Martin Luther King Jr., a man labeled by the agency as the "most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country." With wiretaps and electronic bugs planted in his home and office, King was kept under constant surveillance by the FBI from 1958 until his death in 1968, all with the aim of "neutralizing King as an effective Negro leader." King even received letters written by government agents suggesting that either he commit suicide or the details of his private life would be revealed to the public. The FBI file on King, whom the agency suspected of communism but failed to prove, is estimated to contain 17,000 pages of materials documenting his day-to-day activities. Incredibly, even 40 years later, the FBI maintains a stranglehold on information relating to this "covert" operation: per a court order, information relating to the FBI wiretaps on King will not be released until 2027. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-w-whitehead/the-fbi-going-rogue_b_822597.html
"Letter from a Birmingham Jail [King, Jr.]" 16 April 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964 Attribution Library of Congress: After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization, and the Organization of Afro-American Unity, a secular group that advocated black nationalism. On March 26, 1964, he met Martin Luther King, Jr. in Washington, D.C., after a press conference which followed both men attending the Senate to hear the debate on the Civil Rights bill. This was the only time the two men ever met; their meeting lasted only one minute, just long enough for photographers to take a picture. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X
Chapter 25: Malcolm X He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race. While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problems, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had the great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem. http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/home/
Hoping to prove the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. was under the influence of Communists, the FBI kept the civil rights leader under constant surveillance. The agency's hidden tape recorders turned up almost nothing about communism. But they did reveal embarrassing details about King's sex life -- details the FBI was able to use against him. The almost fanatical zeal with which the FBI pursued King is disclosed in tens of thousands of FBI memos from the 1960s. The FBI paper trail spells out in detail the government agency's concerted efforts to derail King's efforts on behalf of the civil rights movement.
In July 1963, a month before the March on Washington, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover filed a request with Attorney General Robert Kennedy to tap King's and his associates' phones and to bug their homes and offices. In September, Kennedy consented to the technical surveillance. Kennedy gave the FBI permission to break into King's office and home to install the bugs, as long as agents recognized the "delicacy of this particular matter" and didn't get caught installing them. Kennedy added a proviso -- he wanted to be personally informed of any pertinent information. http://articles.cnn.com/2008-03-31/us/mlk.fbi.conspiracy_1_dream-speech-david-garrow-civil-rights?_s=PM:US
APRIL 23, 1976 DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., CASE STUDY
FBI informants in the civil rights movement and reports from field offices kept the Bureau's headquarters informed of developments in the civil rights field. The FBI's presence was so intrusive that one major figure in the civil rights movement testified that his colleagues referred to themselves as members of "the FBI's golden record club." 3
The FBI's formal program to discredit Dr. King with Government officials began with the distribution of a "monograph" which the FBI realized could "be regarded as a personal attack on Martin Luther King," 4 and which was subsequently described by a Justice Department official as "a personal diatribe ... a personal attack without evidentiary support." 5
Congressional leaders were warned "off the record" about alleged dangers posed by Reverend King. The FBI responded to Dr. King's receipt of the Nobel Peace Prize by attempting to undermine his reception by foreign heads of state and American ambassadors in the countries that be planned to visit. When Dr. King returned to the United States, steps were taken to reduce support for a huge banquet and a special "day" that were being planned in his honor.
The campaign against Dr. King included attempts to destroy the Southern Christian Leadership Conference by cutting off its sources of funds. The FBI considered, and on some occasions executed, plans to cut off the support of some of the SCLC's major contributors, including religious organizations, a labor union, and donors of grants such as the Ford Foundation. One FBI field office recommended that the FBI send letters to the SCLC's donors over Dr. King's forged signature warning them that the SCLC was under investigation by the Internal Revenue Service. The IRS files on Dr. King and the SCLC were carefully scrutinized for financial irregularities. For over a year, the FBI unsuccessfully attempted to establish that Dr. King had a secret foreign bank account in which he was sequestering funds. http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/churchfinalreportIIIb.htm
The FBI budget for Fiscal Year 1976 programmed a total of $7,401,000 for the intelligence informant program, more than twice the amount allocated for the organized crime informant program. 8
The number of intelligence informants has been substantially larger in previous years because of the “Ghetto Informant Program,” which at its height comprised over 7,000 informants. The FBI began the Ghetto Informant Program in 1967 in the context of the urban riots and violence of the mid-1960′s, and in response to instructions from the White House and the Attorney General. Although “ghetto” informants were initially used as “listening posts” to provide information on the planning or organizing of riots and civil disturbances, many were eventually given specific assignments to attend public meetings of “extremists” and to identify bookstores and others distributing “extremist literature”. The FBI terminated the program in 1973 after sharp debate within the Bureau over the program’s effectiveness and the propriety of the listening post concept. http://www.jackandjillpolitics.com/2011/02/an-fbi-snitch-in-every-hood-soledad-obriens-new-cnn-black-history-conspiracy-special/
Malcom X - - House Negro & Field Negro by R.K http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fu_FVNzZmBY&feature=related
House Negro & Field Negro - - "There was two kind of slaves on the plantation." There was the house negro and the field negro. The house negroes, they lived in the house, with master. They dressed pretty good. They ate good, cause they ate his food, what he left. They lived in the attic or the basement, but still they lived near their master, and they loved their master, more than their master loved himself. That's how you can tell a house negro. In those days, he was called a house nigger. And that's what we call him today, because we still got some house niggers runnin around here.
On that same plantation, there was the field negro. The field negro, those were the masses. There was always more negros in the field as there were negros in the house. The negro in the field caught hell. The field negro was beaten, from morning til night. He lived in a shack, in a hut. wore cast-off clothes. He hated his master. I say, he hated his master. He was intelligent. That house negro loved his master. But that field negro, remember, they were in the majority, and they hated their master. When the house caught on fire, he didn't try to put it out, that field negro prayed for a wind. For a breeze. When the master got sick, the field negro prayed that he died. If someone come to the field negro and said "Let's separate, let's run." He didn't say "Where we going?" he said "Any place is better than here". We got field Negros in America today. I'm a field negro. The masses are the field Negros. When they see this mans house on fire, we don't hear these little Negros talkin bout "Our Government is in trouble." They say "thee Government is in trouble." Imagine a negro, "Our Government".
The Bush Family's Slaveholding Past - - Was their dynasty built on slavery? By: Edward Ball | Posted: February 15, 2008 ...President Bush has talked about slavery from several microphones, most memorably in a 2003 speech on Gorée Island, one of the "slave castles" in West Africa from which captive youth and children were dispatched to the Americas. Speechwriters likely supplied the words on that occasion when the president said, "slavery was one of the greatest crimes of history." But the words fell short of an accounting by the White House for America's role in the Middle Passage, and they came before the revelation of the Bush family's own link to the slave past.
President Obama award George H.W. Bush the Presidential Medal of Freedom
The magnanimous gesture of bestowing the nation’s highest civilian honor to the 41st U.S. President aka “ole Slave master” by a “House Negro” lacks credibility
President George W. Bush's grandfather, Prescott Bush made considerable profits off Auschwitz slave labor. In fact, President Bush himself is an heir to these profits from the holocaust which were placed in a blind trust in 1980 by his father, former president George Herbert Walker Bush http://www.oldamericancentury.org/bushco/bush_crime_family.htm
As for the African Americans in this tale, the Walker family slaves, neither names nor biographical details about them have survived. According to the genealogist who uncovered the records, Robert Hughes, the census accounts show that they lived at four different farms in Cecil County, Maryland, on a string of land called Sassafras Neck, which separates two slender rivers that empty into upper Chesapeake Bay. There, in 1790, William and Sarah Davis, direct ancestors of the president, owned seven people, while another branch of the family owned five. Twenty years later, in 1810, a third couple in the president's ancestral clan were counted as masters to eighteen people. The last appearance of the family as slaveholders of record comes in 1830, when George E. and Harriet Walker, great-great-great grandparents of President George W. Bush, owned 321 acres and two slaves, a female between 10 and 24 and a male between 24 and 36. The namelessness of the slaves is the fault of the so-called slave schedules used in the census, which called for nothing more than approximate ages. ...Still, all slaveholders were also slave traders.
The president's family had to avail themselves of a slave auction on at least two occasions: initially, to buy people, and later, when a Walker farm failed, to sell some of the same people, much the way a stockholder liquidates an investment. No story has surfaced about how it happened, but in the mid-1830s, it appears that George E. Walker, the president's third great-grandfather, lost his land. After that, in 1838, he packed his family into a wagon and went west, settling in southern Illinois on a homestead near the town of Bloomington. It is from this branch of migrants that the current Bush clan descends. http://www.theroot.com/views/bush-familys-slaveholding-past
Just as the slave master in that day, used Tom, to keep the field negroes in check. The same ol slavemaster today has negros who are nothing but modern Uncle Toms, aka 21st century "House Niggers", to keep you and me in check. Keep us under control. http://www.zimbio.com/Black+History+Month/articles/265/Malcolm+X+House+Negro+vs+Field+Negro
Uncle Tom aka Lackey, House Negro, and/or House Nigger, is a name given to blacks (often considered leaders) who catered to the will of whites and the status quo. He or she could have been a newspaper editor, school principal, (ah...FBI director...Supreme Ct. Justice), college president, politician, grocer, preacher, teacher, or farmer. Whatever the social standing, an "Uncle Tom's" main objective was to placate whites in the hopes of getting some personal reward for services rendered. Certainly not all the people who occupied these positions acted as Toms. These individuals could be counted on to carry out spy missions for the White Citizens Councils, deny activists the use of services, property, or equipment vital to the movement's success, or to simply sabotage a particular project. Most "Uncle Toms" had a well-established history of working closely with local white leaders prior to the movement, so they were not at all difficult to find when the need arose. These individuals, because of either fear or greed, or a combination of both, helped segregationists thwart the freedom movement at every level.
"It is certain that had it not been for Uncle Toms, aka Lackies, House Negroes, and/or House Niggers consistently selling out their people and the freedom struggle, the civil rights movement would have enjoyed many, many more successes and Dr. King would now be 86 years old." http://www.usm.edu/crdp/html/cd/uncle.htm "Edited
"I Have a Dream" http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Genesis 37:18 And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him. 19. And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh. 20. Come now therefore, and let us slay him…and we shall see what will become of his dreams.
.Martin Luther King, Jr.'s last Sermon April 3, 1968 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0FiCxZKuv8
Dr. King’s Gauntlet: Nonviolence or Nonexistence - - On April 3, 1968, the night before he was assassinated (by our government), Dr. King told thousands of people at the Mason Temple in Memphis, Tennessee: For years now, we have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can we just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence; its nonviolence or nonexistence.
Nonviolence or nonexistence. That is the choice. These are the last words of Dr. King, the gauntlet he threw down before us and the whole world. Nobody talks about it, but this is the heart of Martin Luther King, Jr. It remains the critical choice before us all. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0119-05.htm
Apparently nobody, not the Mafia, the Memphis Police, the FBI, the CIA, or the Army Military Intelligence teams were taking any chances. If the Mafia contract had not succeeded, someone else was prepared to kill King. When King stepped out on that balcony at the Lorraine Motel he did not know that he was under complete surveillance and that more than one gun was aimed at him.
... Martin Luther King had become more than a civil rights organizer, and more even than a voice against the war on Vietnam. ...King had become so dangerous to the ruling powers that a decision was taken at the highest level that he was not to leave Memphis alive. .. http://dissidentvoice.org/2008/04/who-killed-martin-luther-king
Dr. Martin Luther King assassination, Lorraine Hotel, Memphis,Tenn., April 4, 1968
Robert Kennedy & Dr King Robert Kennedy & Dr King Shot
WHAT REALLY HAPPENED TO DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING AND BOBBY KENNEDY? — The assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, John Kennedy and Robert Kennedy were all master minded by the same powerful illuminati faction. Please read our article: LYNDON JOHNSON CONSPIRED TO MURDER JFK
These murders are so closely related, that one assassin might have been involved in both the MLK and JFK killings. The lead tramp (BELOW LEFT) pictured here
was arrested and released with no official record of that arrest the day of the Kennedy assassination has been identified at Charles Rodgers. He was also known as “Montoya” and might also be known as “Frenchy”. He may have also had connections with the mysterious “Raoul” whom apparently was the handler of the patsy in King’s killing, James Earl Ray. Most likely, Raoul was Raul Salcedo who was a contract killer and CIA operative. An eyewitness present at the murder scene of Dr. King provided the following sketch of a man who was at the site of the murder. (BELOW LEFT) The picture has a stunning resemblance to Charles Rodgers. We’ll get to that in a bit. For now though, let’s look at the big picture surrounding King’s murder. http://theconspiracyzone.podcastpeople.com/posts/22245
Ernest C. Withers was a Paid FBI informant:
Civil Rights Photographer Unmasked as Informer September 13, 2010 From at least 1968 to 1970, Mr. Withers, who was black, provided photographs, biographical information and scheduling details to two F.B.I. agents in the bureau’s Memphis domestic surveillance program, Howell Lowe and William H. Lawrence, according to numerous reports summarizing their meetings. The reports were obtained by the newspaper under the Freedom of Information Act and posted on its Web site. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/us/14photographer.html
9/14/2011 Ernest Withers, a revered civil rights photographer who captured iconic images of Martin Luther King Jr. on the night King was shot in Memphis, actually played a different role the day before: FBI informant.
The Commercial Appeal, a newspaper in Memphis, just completed a two-year investigation that reveals how Withers provided the FBI with details about where King was staying and information on his meeting with black militants on April 3, 1968 — the day before the assassination.
Withers' spying, however, extends far beyond the slain civil rights leader.
The Commercial Appeal found FBI reports indicating that Withers collaborated for years with FBI agents monitoring the civil rights movement. Those FBI reports, the paper's Marc Perrusquia writes, "reveal a covert, previously unknown side of the beloved photographer."
Withers is certainly beloved in Memphis, where a namesake museum is scheduled to open next month. It remains to be seen how these new revelations may affect Withers' legacy.
The Memphis paper reports how Withers' spying assisted J. Edgar Hoover, the controversial FBI director who long covertly monitored King and others considered radicals. Withers, the paper notes, gave the bureau a "front-row seat to the civil rights and anti-war movements in Memphis." In the 1960s, he provided information on everyone from the Invaders — a militant black power group — to church leaders, politicians and business owners. Experts believe the FBI paid Withers for spying. http://news.yahoo.com/s/yblog_upshot/20100914/pl_yblog_upshot/famed-civil-rights-photographer-doubled-as-fbi-informant
The betrayal of Martin Luther King: Photographer at the heart of civil rights movement exposed as FBI informant: By James White - UPDATED: 15 September 2010
As a photographer at the centre of the civil rights movement he had unparalleled access to Martin Luther King and other leading figures, documenting their struggle for equality.
But Ernest Withers has now been exposed as an FBI informant, feeding the organisation considered by many black activists to be its enemy with information for years.
Withers died in 2007 aged 85 after a distinguished career during which he photographed key moments in the civil rights campaign.
Access: Withers took photographs of Martin Luther King throughout the civil rights years, including this famed shot in a motel room in 1966. Withers has been exposed as an FBI informant during that time
Successful: Ernest Withers outside his shop in Memphis, the city where King was to later be assassinated
Respected: Ernest Withers outside the Lorraine Motel where Martin Luther King was murdered
Iconic images of King relaxing in a hotel room, travelling for the first time on a de-segregated bus and even the aftermath of his death, killed by a sniper's bullet in April 1968, made up his portfolio.
So activists and friends were left horrified when a U.S. newspaper revealed the results of a two-year investigation into Withers's activities.
The Memphis newspaper The Commercial Appeal revealed the results of a freedom of information request which forms the basis of claims the photographer was an FBI-paid informant.
It shows the lengths the agency was prepared to go to gain intelligence on the civil rights movement and how they paid Withers $200 for each piece of important information he passed to them.
He gave agents detailed reports on the 1968 sanitation workers strike which led King to his death in Memphis.
It was claimed he also handed over details of the subsequent funeral arrangements, as well as detailed biographies of the movements main players, information about their beliefs and even license plate numbers.
Reaction to the claims by prominent figures involved includes the suggestion that the information was of little use because the movement was a peaceful and transparent one.
Rosalind Withers, one of his daughters, rejected the disclosure, and said: 'My father's not here to defend himself. That is a very, very strong, strong accusation.'
Researcher Uncovers Full Text of Very Rude Letter From FBI to MLK Implying He Should Kill Himself. 11/ 12/ 2014
In 1964 the FBI mailed Martin Luther King, Jr. a graphic letter, purporting to be sent by a former supporter, accusing King of conducting extramarital affairs (allegedly documented on an enclosed recording) and ending with the warning that, “There is only one thing left for you to do.” King interpreted the letter—whose existence has been officially acknowledged since a Congressional investigation in the 1970s—to mean he should commit suicide. (A Congressional report also concluded that the message “clearly implied that suicide would be a suitable course of action for Dr. King.”) Public copies of the letter have always been heavily redacted—until Yale historian Beverly Gage found the full document in longtime FBI director J. Edgar Hoover's files at the National Archives. It's intense:
Lend your sexually psychotic ear to the enclosure. You will find yourself and in all your dirt, filth, evil and moronic talk exposed on the record for all time ... Listen to yourself you filthy, abormal animal.
Gage, writing about the letter in the New York Times Magazine, says the FBI tried to interest journalists in covering King's affairs but was unsuccessful:
Today it is almost impossible to imagine the press refusing a juicy story. To a scandal-hungry media, the bedroom practices of our public officials and moral leaders are usually fair game. And a sex scandal is often — though not always — a cheap one-way ticket out of public life. Faced with today’s political environment, perhaps King would have made different decisions in his personal affairs. Perhaps, though, he never would have had the chance to emerge as the public leader he ultimately became.
Luckily, in 1964 the media were far more cautious.
The press's refusal to report on King's affairs is certainly lucky in some sense, given the good that he did between 1964 and his death in 1968. But does that mean—as Gage seems to imply—that not writing about the dubious personal conduct of one of the country's most well-known moral authorities was the right decision? That would seem like an odd position for a historian engaged in documenting salacious accusations against Martin Luther King, Jr. to take. http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2014/11/12/fbi_martin_luther_king_jr_letter_suicide_suggested_over_affairs.html?wpsrc=fol_tw
But Andrew Young, 78, the Georgia politician and pastor who was a friend of Dr King, was forgiving. 'I always liked him because he was a good photographer,' he said. 'I don't think Dr King would have minded him making a little money on the side.'
Athan Theoharis, a historian at Marquette University, Wisconsin, and author of a book on the FBI, said: 'It is an amazing betrayal. It really speaks to the degree that the FBI was able to engage individuals within the civil rights movement. This man was so well trusted.'
The claims against Withers were made when a 1970 FBI fraud report which was obtained by reporters was not properly censored, showing informant number ME338-R was Ernest Withers.
They then cross-referenced the number with 7,000 pages of earlier reports, one of which described ME 338-R as 'most conversant with all key activities in the Negro community'.
"When any person is intentionally deprived of his constitutional rights, those responsible have committed no ordinary offense. A crime of this nature, if subtly encouraged by failure to condemn and punish, certainly leads down the road to totalitarianism." J. Edgar Hoover (1952)
"The Scottsboro Boys" Trials 1931 - 1937 No crime in American history-- let alone a crime that never occurred-- produced as many trials, convictions, reversals, and retrials as did an alleged gang rape of two white girls by nine black teenagers on a Southern Railroad freight run on March 25, 1931. Over the course of the two decades that followed, the struggle for justice of the "Scottsboro Boys," as the black teens were called, made celebrities out of anonymities, launched and ended careers, wasted lives, produced heroes, opened southern juries to blacks, exacerbated sectional strife, and divided America's political left... http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/scottsb.htm
Feb. 12, 2010 - SCOTTSBORO, Ala. - Ala. town marks infamous case 8 decades later Museum acknowledges painful past of ‘The Scottsboro Boys' - The very name of this Alabama city has stood for racial injustice for almost 80 years. Nine young black men went on trial in Scottsboro in 1931 on charges of raping two white women in a case that made headlines worldwide. The defendants - eight of whom were sentenced to die - came to be known as "The Scottsboro Boys" and the charges were revealed as a sham. Now, four generations later, Scottsboro is acknowledging its painful past. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35367474/ns/travel-destinations/
Was Was the youngest person ever executed innocent? 09/28/2011 -It's 1944, and police escort a 14-year-old boy into the death chamber. He stands just 5'1 and weighs a mere 95 pounds…This young boy is about to be the youngest person ever to be executed in the history of the United States. Before there was a Troy Davis there was George Junius Stinney, Jr. and the state of South Carolina electrocuted him.
Stinney was accused of murdering two young white girls. They were eleven year-old Betty June Binnicker and 8-year-old Mary Emma Thames. The two girls went missing one day after they were riding their bikes while looking for flowers on the wrong side of the tracks in a small working class town of Alcolu, South Carolina where whites and blacks were separated by railroad tracks. The girls went missing and were later found dead in a ditch, murdered with a railroad spike.
Stinney confessed. There is no written record of his confession in the archives. There is no physical evidence linking Stinney to the murder. There is no paper record of Stinney's conviction.
The lack of any physical evidence or archived police and court records is the reason South Carolina attorney Steve McKenzie, who detailed Stinney's story to TheGrio, said he wants to re-open the case of the execution George Junius Stinney, Jr. McKenzie said he believes Stinney was innocent of the murder and with "no investigative notes, no trial transcripts, no written confession, and nothing to indicate guilt," it is clear Stinney's trial and subsequent execution were suspicious at best and a miscarriage of justice at worst.
This was South Carolina in 1944, with a black male defendant, two young white female victims, and an all white, male jury. Stinney never stood a chance. http://www.thegrio.com/news/was-the-youngest-person-ever-executed-innocent.php
January 21, 2014 - - SUMTER, S.C. (AP) — A 14-year-old boy executed by South Carolina nearly 70 years ago is finally getting another day in court.
Supporters of George Stinney plan to argue Tuesday that there wasn't enough evidence to find him guilty in 1944 of killing a 7-year-old and an 11-year-old girl. The black teen was found guilty of killing the white girls in a trial that lasted less than a day in the tiny Southern mill town of Alcolu, separated, as most were in those days, by race.
Nearly all the evidence, including a confession that was central to the case against Stinney, has disappeared, along with the transcript of the trial. Lawyers working on behalf of Stinney's family have sworn statements from his relatives accounting for his time the day the girls were killed, from a cellmate saying he never confessed to the crime and from a pathologist disputing the findings of the autopsy done on the victims.
The novel decision whether to give an executed man a new trial will be in the hands of Circuit Judge Carmen Mullen. Experts say it is a longshot. South Carolina law has a high bar for new trials based on evidence that could have been discovered at the time of the trial. Also, the legal system in the state before segregation often found defendants guilty with evidence that would be considered scant today. If Mullen finds in favor of Stinney, it could open the door for hundreds of other appeals…. http://news.yahoo.com/trial-sought-sc-boy-14-executed-1944-172035983.html
On June 19, 1953, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg became the first civilians to be executed for espionage in U.S. history. http://www.truveo.com/the-rosenbergs-execution/id/404973506
9/9/12/2008 Evidence of false testimony in released Rosenberg transcripts: WASHINGTON (AP) - Newly released grand jury transcripts add strong evidence to the argument that the conviction and execution of Ethel Rosenberg in the Cold War's biggest espionage case (1951) were based on perjured testimony. In recent years, one of the two key witnesses against Rosenberg recanted his testimony. It now appears that the other witness made up her testimony too. The witnesses were Ethel's brother and sister-in-law, David and Ruth Greenglass. Thanks to the work of a team of lawyers and historians, the government released the grand jury testimony that formed the basis for the charges against Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-09-12-rosenbergs-perjury_N.htm?csp=34
FBI Informants Destabilizing Boston Black Leadership? February 18, 011
(Ron Wilburn, FBI Informant who was key witness in Turner, Wilkerson cases.) By Blackstonian Publisher/Editor Jamarhl Crawford
during the much publicized trials of City Councillor Chuck Turner and State Senator Dianne Wilkerson. The central figure in these cases was Ron WIlburn, Black Boston “Entrepreneur & Businessman” and simultaneously paid FBI Informant. So much so that he wore wires and logged over 100 hrs of video and audio surveillance. Tens of thousands of documents were revealed during these trials and it showed many tactics in use by the FBI currently, which are reminiscent of the Cold War, Communist Witch Hunts and J. Edgar Hoover’s now infamous CoIntel Program. http://blackstonian.com/news/2011/02/fbi-informants-destabilizing-boston-black-leadership/http://blackstonian.com/news/2011/02/fbi-informants-destabilizing-boston-black-leadership/
FBI targeting of government critics: Black Panther Party - - The long shadow of December 4, 1969 extends to the present day The FBI had been involved in the raid during the planning stages, and during that phase, an FBI informant within the Black Panther Party – William O’Neal – helped his control agent, Roy Mitchell, sketch out a floor plan of the apartment. The sketch clearly marked the location of the bed.
O’Neal was a captain of security in the Chicago chapter of the BPP and at one point one of Hampton’s bodyguards. He ultimately pocketed some $30,000 of FBI money from 1969 until 1972 in salary and perks. http://www.stopfbi.net/2010/12/4/long-shadow-december-4-1969
The FBI's War on the Black Panther Party's Southern California Chapter 30 October 1999 http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45a/077.html
ATLANTA (AP) - - 9/2/11 — A former Black Panther convicted of murdering a California park ranger is getting another shot at freedom after a federal appeals court found that a parole official improperly worked to keep him behind bars by secretly handing over information to Justice Department officials.
The Atlanta-based 11th Circuit Court of Appeals decision last week found that then-U.S. Parole Commissioner Deborah Spagnoli "impermissibly tainted" the board's decision to delay Veronza Bowers' release when she wrote a memo to government attorneys about the case. Her actions, the three-judge panel said, violated the commission's mandate as an independent arbiter.
Spagnoli, who resigned from the commission in 2007, said Thursday she was unaware of the ruling and refused to discuss the case.
Spagnoli sent the memo to the office of then-U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, who made the unprecedented decision to intervene, the ruling said. The memo, which wasn't discovered until 2007, outlined arguments for an appeal that could be used by government attorneys if Bowers was granted parole, the opinion said.
Gonzales asked the commission in June 2005 to review its decision, and days later the panel voted to temporarily delay Bowers' release. Commissioners went a step further in October 2005, voting 4-0 to keep Bowers in prison indefinitely http://news.yahoo.com/court-panelist-secretly-blocked-convicts-parole-153240551.html
Geronimo Pratt: J. Edgar Hoover considered him a potential messiah for Black people, however the police force feared him as one of the biggest threats to national security. He was framed by the FBI's infamous COINTELPRO and imprisoned for the murder of schoolteacher Caroline Olsen that occurred on a Santa Monica tennis court. Geronimo maintained that he was at a national Black Panther Party meeting in Oakland seven hours away and that FBI agents and police hid and possibly destroyed wiretap evidence that would prove it. http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=944970\\
On June 10, 1997, Judge Dickey ordered Pratt to be released on $25,000 bail. He had spent 27 years behind bars. Pratt was released in time to watch his son, Hiroji, go through his eighth-grade graduation ceremony. Later, he returned to Louisiana to see his 94-year-old mother, Eunice Petty Pratt, whom he had not seen since 1974. Pratt's stood completely vindicated when in 2000 the city of Los Angeles agreed to pay $2.75 million and the U.S. Department of Justice $1.75 million to settle a lawsuit for false imprisonment and violations of his civil rights. http://www.answers.com/topic/geronimo-pratt
Black Panther Leader Geronimo Pratt Dies In Tanzania June 3, 2011 - LOS ANGELES — Elmer “Geronimo” Pratt, a former Black Panther Party leader who spent 27 years in prison on a murder conviction that was later overturned, has died. He was 63.
Pratt died at his home in a small village in Tanzania, where he had lived for at least half a decade, lawyer Stuart Hanlon, who helped Pratt win his freedom, told The Associated Press from San Francisco on Thursday.
- Pratt was a former high ranking member of the Black Panther Party. He was targeted by the FBI program COINTELPRO, which aimed to “neutralize Pratt as an effective BPP functionary.”
- In 1970 Pratt was arrested and charged with murder and kidnapping.
- Pratt’s conviction was vacated on June 10, 1997, on the grounds that the prosecution had concealed evidence that might have exonerated the defendant.
Pratt continued to work on behalf of men and women believed to be wrongfully incarcerated until his death, including participation in rallies in support of Mumia Abu-Jamal, whom he had met when both were active as Black Panthers. Geronimo was living in Tanzania at the time of his death. http://newsone.com/nation/associatedpress3/geronimo-pratt-dies/
Angela Y. Davis: In August 1970 Angela Yvonne Davis was catapulted into the national spotlight when she was put on the list of the ten most wanted criminals in the United States. An armed black man, Jonathan Jackson, entered the Marin County, California, Civic Center on August 7, 1970, with a weapon owned by Davis and attempted, along with three San Quentin prisoners, to take hostages. Jackson's intention was to hold the hostages until several inmates of Soledad Prison, including Jackson's brother, George, were released. During the attempt three of the assailants and the presiding judge were killed and three others wounded. A warrant was issued for Davis's arrest. She fled, eluding the police until October 1970. After a total of 16 months in prison in New York - where she was apprehended - and in California, Davis's trial began. The prosecutor alleged that Davis engineered the plan to kidnap the judge and jurors because of her love for George Jackson. The prosecution presented witnesses who testified that they had seen Davis with Jonathan Jackson in the days preceding the August 7 incident. Davis and her defense attorneys argued that Davis was a political activist concerned with prison reforms and the oppression of the poor in general and was not moved to a crime of passion because of her feeling for Jackson. The all-white jury, composed of eight women and four men, acquitted Davis on all counts in June 1972. http://www.answers.com/topic/angela-davis
Angela Davis - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angela_Davis
little rock nine Central high schoolFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - - The Little Rock Nine were a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. On their first day of school, troops from the Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs making threats to lynch. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Rock_Nine
High-school students picketing a segregated restaurant. Their line is attacked by racists. The police club the demonstrators. A 15-year old girl lies unconscious in the street where she was beaten down, her sister kneels beside her. http://www.crmvet.org/images/imgyoung.htm See Nashville Student Movement for more
5 months later
3 months later
The 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing The crater and other damage caused by the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, which killed four African-American girls. AP Photo. http://www.fbi.gov/page2/sept07/bapbomb092607.htm
Denise McNair...Addie Mae Collins...Carole Robertson ...Cynthia Wesley .On September 15, 1963 at 10:22 a.m., their world ended. http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/birmingham_church/5.html
Att. Gen Baxley & Robert Chambliss: As attorney general, Baxley was made famous for his most prestigious case against the Ku Klux Klan, his 1977 prosecution of Robert Chambliss for the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in September 1963. Baxley succeeded in convicting Chambliss with an all white jury and minimal evidence (as J. Edgar Hoover, head of the FBI at the time, refused to relinquish tapes necessary to the case). The victory eased the minds of the parents of Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley and Denise McNair. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Baxley
From The F.B.I. Website… By 1965, we had serious suspects—namely, Robert E. Chambliss, Bobby Frank Cherry, Herman Frank Cash, and Thomas E. Blanton, Jr., all KKK members—but witnesses were reluctant to talk and physical evidence was lacking. Also, at that time, information from our surveillances was not admissible in court. As a result, no federal charges were filed in the ‘60s. It’s been claimed that Director Hoover held back evidence from prosecutors in the '60s or even tried to block prosecution. But it’s simply not true. His concern was to prevent leaks, not to stifle justice. —he simply didn’t think the evidence was there to convict. http://www.fbi.gov/page2/sept07/bapbomb092607.htm
... This was the same Hoover who had informants in the South like Gary Thomas Rowe—men who participated in the beating of freedom bus riders and the murder of civil rights activists such as Viola Liuzzo, at the same time that they were working for the FBI. By virtue of his refusal to defend the constitutional rights of young people who risked their lives fighting to register black voters in the Jim Crow South, Hoover was complicit in such crimes as the 1964 murder of Schwerner, Goodman and Chaney in Philadelphia, Mississippi…. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45a/705.html
James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan on 21st June, 1964 while trying to get African Americans in the southern United States registered to vote. In the summer 1964, 30 black homes and 37 black churches were firebombed and over 80 volunteers were beaten by white mobs or racist police officers. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkkk.htm .
Convict in 1964 civil-rights deaths won't confess 12/22/2014
PARCHMAN, Miss. (AP) — Craggy-faced and ornery, Edgar Ray Killen bears the signs of his 89 years. His hands are still scarred and rough from decades in the east Mississippi sawmills. He has a muscular build even as he maneuvers in his wheelchair. Time has not softened his views and he remains an ardent segregationist.
And he steadfastly refuses to discuss the "Freedom Summer" slayings of three civil-rights workers, which sparked national outrage, helped spur passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and landed him behind bars.
Killen was interviewed by The Associated Press inside the Mississippi State Penitentiary, where he is serving a 60-year sentence; it was his first interview since his conviction on state charges of manslaughter in 2005, 41 years to the day after James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner were killed and buried in a red clay dam. An earlier trial in 1967, on federal charges, resulted in a mistrial.
Killen wouldn't say much about the 1964 killings. He said he remains a segregationist who does not believe in race equality but contends he bears no ill will toward blacks. http://news.yahoo.com/convict-1964-civil-rights-deaths-wont-confess-174758258.html
Ku Klux Klansmen beat black bystander George Webb in the Birmingham Trailways bus station, May 14, 1961. The man with his back to the camera (center right) is FBI undercover agent Gary Thomas Rowe. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5149667
John Lewis and Jim Zwerg after being beaten during the Freedom Rides. - Freedom rider James Peck seated on a hospital gurney after being beaten in Birmingham
Violence in Alabama was organized by Birmingham Police Sergeant Tom Cook (an avid Ku Klux Klan supporter) and police commissioner Bull Connor. The pair made plans to bring the Ride to an end in Alabama. They assured Gary Thomas Rowe, an FBI informer and member of Eastview Klavern #13 (the most violent Klan group in Alabama), tha 14, Mother's Day, in Anniston, Alabama, a mob of Ku Klux Klansmen, some still in church attire, attacked the first of the two buses (the Greyhound). They tried to leave, but a person in a car kept blocking the bus as it tried to leave. The KKK members then slashed its tires. They forced the crippled bus to stop several miles outside of town, and it was firebombed shortly afterwards by the mob chasing it in cars. As the bus burned, the mob held the doors shut, intent on burning the riders to death. Sources disagree, but either an exploding fuel tank or an undercover state investigator brandishing a revolver caused the mob to retreat, allowing the riders to escape the bus. The riders were viciously beaten as they fled the burning bus, and only warning shots fired into the air by highway patrolmen prevented the riders from being lynched.
That night, the hospitalized Freedom Riders, most of whom had been refused care, were removed from the hospital at 2 AM, because the staff feared the mob outside the hospital. Local civil rights leader Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth organized several cars of blacks who defied the mob to rescue the injured Freedom Riders.
Viola Fauver Gregg Liuzzo was a civil rights activist from Michigan and mother of five, who was murdered by Ku Klux Klan members after the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches in Alabama. One of the Klansmen in the car from which the shots were fired was a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) informant. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Liuzzo
The four men in the car, Collie Wilkins (21), Gary Rowe (34), William Eaton (41) and Eugene Thomas (42) were quickly arrested. Rowe, an FBI undercover agent, testifed against the other three men. In an attempt to prejudice the case, rumours began to circulate that Viola was a member of the Communist Party and had abandoned her five children in order to have sexual relationships with African Americans involved in the civil rights movement. It was later discovered that these highly damaging stories that appeared in the press had come from the FBI. Despite Rowe's testimony, the three members of the Ku Klux Klan were acquitted of murder by an Alabama jury. President Lyndon Johnson, instructed his officials to arrange for the men to be charged under an 1870 federal law of conspiring to deprive Viola Liuzzo of her civil rights. Wilkins, Eaton and Thomas were found guilty and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Collie Wilkins, Eugene Thomas and William Eaton at their trial in Alabama http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAliuzzo.htm
. Gary Thomas Rowe, escorted by FBI agents, walks to court in Hayneville, Ala., to testify against Collie Leroy Wilkins in the murder of Viola Liuzzo in 1965. (AP) http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/30/AR2005063001422.html
Emmett Till... Before & After... His death helped spark the civil rights movement. It demonstrated the brutality of southern violence towards African-Americans, and created outrage across the nation. Emmett's mother, Mamie, insisted at his funeral that he be given an open-casket, so others could see what they had done to her 14 year old boy. http://www.emmetttillmurder.com/
Emmett Till's Killers Celebrate Their Acquittal - Roy Bryant, J. W. Milam and their wives celebrate their acquittal in the Emmett Till murder trial, September, 1955. The jury delibrated 67 minutes. "If we hadn't stopped to drink pop, it wouldn't have taken that long," a juror said. One year later, Bryant and Milam admit to Look magazine that they had, in fact, murdered Till. The savage killing shocked much (but hardly all) of the nation and garnered attention around the world. http://www.life.com/image/50346748/in-gallery/22802/civil-rights-pivotal-events
The Shocking Story of Approved Killing in Mississippi - This article is the infamous confession of J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant to the kidnapping and killing of Emmett Till. Reporter William Bradford Huie reportedly paid the men $4000 for their story. It appeared in Look 20 (24 January 1956): http://www.emmetttillmurder.com/Look%201956.htm
FBI: No Charges in Emmett Till Case: March 17, 2006: The FBI has concluded its investigation into the 1955 murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till and turned its report over to Mississippi District Attorney Joyce L. Chiles. Although no federal charges will be filed in the civil-rights era case, state charges could be filed. http://www.emmetttillmurder.com/
FBI Report and Trial Transcript : In March, 2007, the FBI released a summary of its 8000 page report of its investigation of the murder of Emmett Till. This report also includes the 354 page transcript of the 1955 murder trial of J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant. The transcript had been lost for decades, but in the course of their investigation, the FBI located a faded copy and re-transcribed it. http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2004/june/till060104/
In 1956, several years before he targeted King, Hoover had a public showdown with T.R.M. Howard, a civil rights leader from Mount Bayou, Mississippi. During a national speaking tour, Howard had criticized the FBI's failure to thoroughly investigate the racially-motivated murders of George W. Lee, Lamar Smith, and Emmett Till. Hoover not only wrote an open letter to the press singling out these statements as "irresponsible" but secretly enlisted the help of NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall in a campaign to discredit Howard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover
Dr.Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard, M.D. (4 March 1908 – 1 May 1976) was an American civil rights leader, fraternal organization leader, entrepreneur and surgeon. He was one of the mentors to activists such as Medgar Evers, Charles Evers, Fannie Lou Hamer, Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, and Jesse Jackson, founded Mississippi's leading civil rights organization in the 1950s, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, and played a prominent role in the investigation of the kidnapping and murder of Emmett Till. He was also president of the National Medical Association and chairman of the board of the National Negro Business League…. http://www.bing.com/reference/semhtml?title=T._R._M._Howard&qpvt=T.R.M.+Howard&src=abop&q=t.r.m.+howard&fwd=1
Hoover was pleased when Marshall wrote back to agree that Howard had wrongly attacked the FBI with "misstatements of facts." And in a real stunner, Marshall said he knew the FBI had done a "thorough and complete job" in three recent cases where blacks were murdered in Mississippi. http://www.newsweek.com/id/113382?tid=relatedcl
(Picture) Thurgood Marshall - Sep. 19, 1955 - Supreme Court - ... The Strangest Of Bedfellows: Thurgood Marshall Fought For Civil Rights. J. Edgar Hoover Fought Communists. How The Two Titans Joined Forces. By Juan Williams | NEWSWEEK From the magazine issue dated Sep 14, 1998 Marshall's abrupt alliance with the FBI was as strategic as any of his courtroom maneuvers during his extraordinary career as a civil-rights lawyer and Supreme Court justice. Driving Marshall was his disdain for the communists, the radicals--even Martin Luther King Jr. King and his talk about nonviolence struck Marshall as childish. After Marshall was nearly lynched by Tennessee segregationists in 1946, the lawyer became convinced that nonviolent social protests would inevitably lead to "wholesale slaughter [of blacks] with no good achieved." Marshall was also concerned that the FBI might mix him up with the radicals and make him a target for its wiretaps and investigations. His alliance with Hoover was protection, Marshall hoped, against FBI interference with his ongoing legal work to defeat segregation. Hoover also had an agenda. Just as Marshall was worried about communists and subversives in the civil-rights movement, Hoover feared that the leftists might start a race war. He desperately wanted inside information from the NAACP--and Marshall was now the key. http://www.newsweek.com/id/113382?tid=relatedcl
.Thurgood Marshall and the FBI : By IWB, World Socialist Web Site, 16 December 1996…History shows that the major gains made in the period after World War II were achieved precisely through the methods of popular resistance, without which court decisions would never have been implemented. Despite the severe, and ultimately crippling limitations of Martin Luther King's reformist program, it is to his credit that he rejected the policies of Marshall and the rest of the NAACP leadership and set about organizing thousands of workers and youth to fight for the dismantling of legal segregation.
. The FBI documents shed light on how deeply Marshall was opposed, at least initially, to the mass upsurge of workers against segregation. According to one FBI memorandum, in early 1956, while King was leading the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott against segregation in public transportation, Marshall was meeting with J. Edgar Hoover to discuss “an unspecified matter in Alabama,” as well as “the Communist Party's effort to get into the NAACP.” http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45a/705.html
Clyd Tolson (left) and Hoover relaxing on the beach in Los Angles 1939 Hoover was a lifelong bachelor, and since at least the 1940s unsubstantiated rumors have circulated that he was homosexual. It has also been suggested that his long association with Clyde Tolson, an associate director of the FBI who was also Hoover's heir, was that of a gay couple. Hoover described Tolson as his alter ego:
... the men not only worked closely together during the day, but also took meals, went to night clubs and vacationed together. The exceedingly close relationship between the two is often cited as evidence that the two were lovers. Tolson inherited Hoover's estate and moved into his home, having also accepted the American flag that draped Hoover's casket. Tolson is buried a few yards away from Hoover in the Congressional Cemetery. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover
Gravesite of J. Edgar Hoover, former Director of the FBI...for many years after his death a FBI agent was assigned to sit in his auto in front of this site in order to keep anyone who wished to damage it away. Even within Hoover's own lifetime, journalists and other observers made observations that hinted at a hidden personal life. Walter Winchell, the famed gossip columnist, once wrote a column that superficially extolled Hoover, while at the same time included many of the aforementioned peculiarities. A female journalist (in an article cited by Winchell), who managed to talk her way into an interview with Hoover, wrote an article sarcastically entitled, "Hoover: He Always Gets his Man, But he Never Found a Woman." http://www.flickr.com/photos/bootbearwdc/87128299/
July 16, 1988 Helen W. Gandy, for 54 years the personal secretary to J. Edgar Hoover, longtime Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, died of cardiac arrest July 7 in Deland, Fla., where she lived.... She was 91 years old. In 1972, after the death of Mr. Hoover, Miss Gandy said she had destroyed his personal correspondence. She testified before a House subcommittee studying charges of F.B.I. harassment of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. that Mr. Hoover had ordered her to do so. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/16/obituaries/helen-w-gandy-secretary-91.html
It was long thought that Hoover denied the existence of organized crime because certain Mafia figures had photographs and other documentation of Hoover's alleged and widely-believed homosexuality. However, nothing could be proved, as after his death, Hoover's secretary obeyed instructions that all his personal files be burned. http://www.answers.com/topic/j-edgar-hoover
More than 120 alleged mobsters arrested on East Coast - - 1/20/11 Holder: Accusations include 'classic mob hits' on rivals and 'truly senseless' killings.... As of late Thursday, 125 had been arrested, including four who were already behind bars. He said the operation was "an important step forward in our nation's ongoing fight against the organized crime families of La Cosa Nostra, the mafia." http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41170643/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts
The Mysterious Origins of J. Edgar Hoover: One of the most virulent racists to hold a top government position in this country in the 20th Century was J. Edgar Hoover, the long-time director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Hoover was notorious for his targetting of blacks: civil rights leaders, elected officials, newspaper publishers, or even artists such as the great singer Paul Robeson. But yet, during Hoover's tenure as head of the FBI, which lasted from 1924 until his death in 1972, there were persistent rumors--both inside and outside the FBI--that Hoover himself was descended from African-Americans. This writer obtained a certified copy of Edgar's actual birth certificate--which was not filed until 1938, when Hoover was 43 years o